Some C-alkyl EDTA Chelates were synthesized which had two hydrophobic long chained alkyl groups and hydrophilic EDTA-metal chelate ions, and the influence of their chain length on surface activities was investigated. C, C'-bisdecyl EDTA chelates showed the best surface activity, and C-decyl-C'-dodecyl EDTA chelates showed the best interfacial activity. Some of these chelates had also superior dispersing power particularly for titanium dioxide pigments in toluene.
The interaction between polysoaps (potassium salt of maleic anhydride and cetylvinyl ether copolymer, the Mw of P-1=6.0 × 105 ; that of P-3=6 × 104) and monosoaps was examined in the aqueous solution by means of light scattering, viscosity, carbon black dispersing power, and specific conductance measurements. The authors investigated the changes of the above-mentioned properties of the polysoap solutions as the function of the added amount of potassium-fatty acid salt homologues (potassium palmitate (KP), laurate (KL), caprylate (KC), and acetate (KA)), when these fatty acid salts were added at a constant concentration levels of aqueous polysoap solutions. (1) The apparent reduced intensity (R90), dissymmetry (Z), and relative viscosity (ηrel) of the polysoap solutions remarkably depend upon the alkyl chain length of potassium-fatty acid salts. Namely, R90, Z and ηrel decreased rapidly upon the addition of a trace amount of monosoaps (KP, KL, KC). This phenomenon may be attributed to the size reduction of the polysoaps due to the degradation of the intermolecular aggregate of the polysoaps. On the contrary, the R90 and the Z of the polysoap solutions decreased gradually, then, followed a slight increase in the trent upon the addition of KA. This behavior may be interpreted by postulating a salting-out effect of KA on the polysoap solutions. (2) Either monosoap or carbon black seems to be adsorbed on the same site of the polysoap molecules (on the alkyl side chain of the polysoaps). Furthermore, the monosoap adsorption on the polysoaps is probably prior to the carbon black adsorption.
Desulfonations of sodium pentane-1-sulfonate and sodium pentane-2-sulfonate with alkalis, such as KOH, NaOH and LiOH, was studied. The degrees of initial desulfonation temperatures of sodium pentane sulfonates with alkalis were higher in order of NaOH, KOH, LiOH, and the desulfonation temperature of pentane-l-sulfonate with each alkali was higher than that of pentane-2-sulfonate. In the reaction of pentane-1-sulfonate with each alkali, the product was 1-pentene accompanying a mixture of trans-2- and cis-2-pentene which seemed to be produced by isomerization of 1-pentene by the contact with alkali. The Composition of produced olefins was affected by basicity and quantity of alkali, namely, weaker the basicity, the proportion of 1-pentene increased, and smaller the quantity, except for KOH, the proportion of 1-pentene increased. Moreover the degree of isomerization of produced pentene was decreased under constant reduced pressure. On the other hand, in the reaction of pentane-2-sulfonate with KOH, the composition of produced olefins was similar to those from pentane-1-sulfonate, independent of the quantity of KOH. However, with small quantity of NaOH or LiOH, 1-pentene was produced predominantly, and 2-pentene seemed principally to be the product by desulfonation. From these results, the alkali-fusion reaction of sulfonate was inferred to be E2 reaction regulated by Hofmann rule.
Human plasma lipoproteins (high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein) are prepared by ultracentrifugal method. Followed delipidation of these lipoproteins is performed with ether containing SDS to obtain their apoproteins. These lipoproteins and apoproteins are subjected to ultrasonic irradiation (20 kc) to accelerate the deterioration. The UV-spectra of ultrasonically irradiated preparations generally increase, and the maximum absorption shifts to the shorter wavelength by ultrasonic irradiation. Similar changes of UV-spectra are observed between ultrasonically irradiated lipoproteins and the lipoproteins stored for long term. In this paper the authors discussed about the influences of ultrasonic irradiation on lipoproteins.