The essential oil obtained by steam distillation from leaves of Oonamomi (Xanthium canadense Mill.) has been stadied. The constituents were separated by means of column chromatography and preparative gas chromatography and were identified by GC, MS, IR and NMR. Twelve terpenoid compounds and sixteen alkane were recognized as the constituents of the essential oil, among which germacrene-D (28.5%), cis-2-hexen-1-ol, limonene, δ-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, β-selinene and δ-cadinene were main components. Two oxygen-containing guaiene compounds were isolated and their respective stractures were assigned to be 6, 11-oxyguaja-4, 9-diene (27) and 4-hydroxyguaja-6 (7), 10 (14) -diene (31) based on the chemical and spectral evidence.
[2, 2-2H2] Hexanoic, [2, 2-2H2] octanoic, [2, 2-2H2] decanoic, [2, 2-2H2] lauric, [2, 2-2H2] myristic, [2, 2-2H2] palmitic, [2, 2-2H2] stearic, [2, 2-2H2] oleic, and [2, 2-2H2] erucic acids have been prepared in high yields from the corresponding unlabeled fatty acids, respectively, by heating a mixture of potassium salt of unlbeled fatty acid and 1% sodium (2H) hydroxide in deuterium oxide at 200°C for 96h in sealed tube. Disappearance of the signals assigned to C-2 methylene protons was observed on 1H NMR spectra of 2, 2-dideutero fatty acid methyl esters with the shift reagents, Eu (fod) 3 or Pr (fod) 3. A 1H NMR method for estimating the 2, 2-dideutero acid content in unlabeled acids has been developed in which the relative decrease in the integrated area of C-2 methylene proton signal is measured. The method has been applied to the analysis of interesterification products between methyl [2, 2-2H2] palmitate and palmitic acid and that between trimyristoylglycerol and [2, 2-2H2] myristic acid.
The adsorption equilibrium of water soluble 1-butanol and valeric acid on the surface-modified and surface-unmodified activated carbons in aqueous solutions was examined. An activated carbon, Pittsburg Activated Carbon (Calgon Co.), was used as an adsorbent, and it was treated with nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and hydrogen. The adsorption isotherms were found to conform with the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity of both 1-butanol and valeric acid on the modified activated carbons decreased in the following order. H2·HCl·HF>H2 treated>HCI·HF>unmodified>13.2N HNO3 The adsorption capacity is expected to change in relation to the nature of surface oxides on the activated carbons. The adsorption capacity of valeric acid was higher than that of 1-butanol.
Adjuvant effects of Tween 80 on the fungicidal action of benomyl were studied using six plant pathogens grown on solid medium. The effects attained to maxima at 500010, 000 ppm of Tween 80, while the sole system of Tween 80 did not show fungicidal action even at such high concentrations. Adjuvant effects of other four POE sorbitan fatty acid esters on the fungicidal action of benomyl were also observed and the effects were appeared to be maxima approximately at HLB 12. Effects of Tween 80 on fungicidal actions of thiophanate methyl, maneb and triazine besides benomyl were examined and adjuvant effects were observed except triazine. Phytotoxicity of Tween 80 to soybean and rice plant seedling was extremely weak compared with Emulgen 910. It was supposed that adjuvant effects of Tween 80 might be due to increase in solubility of fungicides in water.
A tinplate was submerged in the safflower oil containing water (201520ppm) with stirring under oxygen, air or nitrogen atmosphere, and the amount of dissolved metals from the tinplate was determined and the autoxidation of the oil was investigated. The amount of tin dissolved was measured by means of neutron activation analysis. The amount of the metal dissolved in the oil increased in proportion to the amount of the water at 20 and 50°C. Under the same temperature and the water content, the amount of metals dissolved was the greatest under nitrogen and decreased under air, and under oxygen. The autoxidation rate of the oil was influenced by the equivalent number of hydroperoxy or peroxy groups [Eq (HPO or PO)] and the number of moles of the dissolved water [M (H2O)]. That is to say, in such case that Eq (HPO or PO) was more than M (H2O), the autoxidation rate was increased by catalysis of the dissolved metal ions. On the condition that Eq (HPO or PO) was nearly equal to M (H2O), the autoxidation rate decreased owing to the formation of the hydrogen bonds among them. In the case that M (H2O) was in excess, the autoxidation rate became smallest on account of the hydrogen bonds and the formation of the hydrates of the dissolved metals.
Using hardened oils with different degree of hardening and mixed fats in various ratios, comparative examinations were made on softening points measured by the Elex automatic softening apparatus (ESP) and by the JIS method (SFP). Also, ESP and SFP of plastic fat products, such as margarine and shortening, were compared. Results obtained were as follows : 1) In hardened oils and mixed fats, the difference between ESP and SFP was less than 0.5°C in all cases and no significant difference was observed statistically. 2) The dispersion of ESP measurements was σ=0.1 or less in most samples and was smaller than that of SFP measurements in all samples. Particularly, it is noted that, in mixed fats, contained more than 80% of liquid oils, in which generally tended to slightly larger dispersion of SFP measurements, the dispersion of ESP measurements was significantly smaller than that of SFP measurements. (P<0.05) 3) In each sample of margarines and shortenings, ESP and SFP, measured in its product, were almost agreed. Consequently, in ESP method, even non-experienced person can obtain almost agreed values to SFPs with good reproducibility, because the control of temperature rise and the reading of end point are made automatically. Thus, ESP method is believed to be useful as an alternative to the conventional SFP method.