Reversed vesicle formation was investigated for a mixture of nonionic (monooleoyldiglycerol; DGMO) and ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate ; SDS) amphiphiles. Following the addition of a small amount of water to the mixture in dodecane, a lamellar liquid crystal is separated from the oil phase. Each crystall swelled due to considerable absorption of oil. Reversed vesicles, which formed by shaking the two-phase system of oil and liquid crystalline phase, were detected by a microscope equipped with a video-enhanced system. The vesicles showed considerable distribution in size, from submicron to 1020 μ m units. The particles were thus concluded to consist of closed reversed bimolecular layers, and inside and outside beeing covered with oil.
The autoxidation reaction of soybean oils containing dissolved water at 20 to 990 ppm was investigated for various reaction periods (70, 110 and 220 h) at 50°C in oxygen. The autoxidation of the soybean oil was accelerated by dissolved water in oil. For the autoxidation of oils containing 20 ppm dissolved water, POV increased gradually to 4.9 (70 h) with reaction time, and rapidly up to 32.1 (220 h). Total POV (amount of hydroperoxide decomposed during the reaction plus observed POV) increased from 6.2 (70 h) to 37.1 (220 h). POV of oil containing 110990 ppm dissolved water was 0.81.2 times (POV 4.06.1, 70 h) and 1.51.6 times (POV 49.952.2, 220 h) that of 20 ppm dissolved water. Total POV was 1.41.9 times (total POV 8.511.6, 70 h) and 1.44.6 times (total POV 52.258.5, 220 h) that of 20 ppm dissolved water. The percentage of decomposed hydroperoxide to that of hydroperoxide was calculated and found highest (2166 %) at 70 h and lowest (513 %) at 220 h.
Propoxylation is useful for making urethane foam and surfactant materials. Since propylene oxide is a low-boiling-point monomer which reacts so fast at high temperature, maximum pressure and temperature must be known even when reaction can not be controlled. In this paper an equation for maximum pressure and temperature in the runaway propoxylation was proposed, and its validity demonstrated by adiabatic experiments using “Reaction Calorimeter RC-1”.
Icosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) both containing fish oil, are of interest for their physiological effects on health. Sardine oil was selectively hydrolyzed by Candida cylindracea lipase in a bioreactor equipped with a cotton-cloth disperser, and a DHA rich oil was obtained. DHA in acyl glycerol was concentrated 2.5 times at a conversion of 72 % in a 15-stage reactor.
The fusion of naturally prepared liposomes and of liposome-biomembrane was investigated in terms of fluorescence resonance energy transfer using fluorescein (F) as a resonance energy donor and rhodamine B (R) as a resonance energy acceptor. Phospholipids were extracted from natural sources : phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolk, phosphatidylserine (PS) from ox brain, and ghost red cell membrane (GRCM) from human blood. The fusion of small unilamellar vesicles was induced by adding Ca2+ and then EDTA. The fluorescence probe method using liposomes labeled with probes was shown to be a simple way for monitoring liposome fusion between PS, PC and GRCM. In fluorescence spectra, the fusion of (F) labeled PS liposome PS (F) and (R) labeled PS liposome PS (R) showed a rhodamine peak due to resonance energy transfer higher than that of PC (F) and PC (R) liposomes. The fusion of PS liposomes is thus shown to occur much more easily than that of PC liposomes. PS liposomes fused with PC liposomes to form liposomes with higher. PS content. Further study was made on the fusion of GRCM with PS liposomes to achieve a greater degree of fusion than of GRCM with PC liposomes.
The evaporation of a solvent from a surfactant solution was investigated. Controlled solvent evaporation exerted two different effects based on affinity of the solvent for water. The evaporation of ethylen glycol monoethyl ether could be very well controlled by a liquid crystal surface film formed by absorption of water in the solution or in atmosphere. The evaporation of benzene and carbon tetrachloride with lower affinity to water could be controlled only by the absorbed surface film of the surfactant from the solution.