Measurement of powder X-ray diffraction inten-sities was made for powder state β-1-monobehenin, monostearin, monopalmitin, monolaurin of Riken Vitamin Co. Ltd.. The results are as follows : 1) All of the materials have their own extra long spacings, each of which is slightly longer than corresponding ordinary long spacing. 2) Each set of their short spacings is well interpreted as arising from a nearly hexagonal chain packing. 3) Besides the spacing mentioned above, remarkable five spacings which seem to be independent of carbon number remain inexplicable for almost all the specimens. The five spacings are about 4.11, 3.71, 2.43, 2.21 and 2.17 A respectively.
Maxted's expression, k=k0 (1-αρ) holds good in case smaller quantities of the poison, in which k is the reaction rate constant in the presence of a quantity, ρ, of the catalyst poison, and k0 is the original, unpoisoned reaction rate constant. But this is not applicable if poisons are great. Author feels that more generalized expression is necessary for catalyst investigation as well as developing some industrial catalytic processes. In the present paper, the author has deduced the expression, as follows; k=γ/2 (A-Aρ-1/K) +√γ2/4 (A-Aρ-1/K) 2+ (γ2/K) A in which A is the catalyst quantity, Aρ=αρA, γ=Ko/A and K is the adsorption equilibrium constants between catalyst and poison. Experimental data presented by Maxted and his coworkers were applied to this expression.
Selective synthesis of carvone by autoxidation of d-limonene was investigated. 1) The products were d-limonene-1, 2-epoxide, trans, cis-2, 8-p-menthadien-1-ol, dl-carvone, dl-carveol, and carveol acetate. 2) The activity of metal salts catalyst is in the following order : Co-acetate>Mn-acetate>Ni-acetate>Cu-acetate, Zn-acetate, Pb-acetate, Cr-acetate. 3) The Co-acetate showed an excellent selectivity (71.2%) of carvone. 4) The optimal reaction temperature was 50°C. 5) Maximum yield of carvone was 31.4%.
It is well known that alkaline earth metallic ions in aqueous solution influences to detergency. In this report, an investigation was made on the detergency of LAS to triglycerides in the presence of Ca ion. It was found that there is a concentration of Ca ion to give the maximum detergency, which increases in proportion to the concentration of LAS. Namely, there is an optimum ratio between the concentration of Ca ion and Na ion in LAS on detergency, and it is independent of the concentration of LAS. This fact suggests us that Na salt of LAS and Ca salt formed by double decomposition of a part of LAS with Ca ion in aqueous solution form a kind of complex micell, which may increase the adsorption of LAS on soil. It is considered that LAS is not only adsorbed on the surface of soil but penetrates into the soil to form a sort of liquid crystal, and that the adsorption of LAS to soil decreases the adhesive energy between soil and glass to lower the interfacial tention between soil and aqueous solution of LAS, and may improve the detergency of the system.
In order to find a suitable method for the measurment of solid fat index (S.F.I.) by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and analysis of its result, dilatometry and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method were compared with this method. Difference in the measured values according to different commercial apparatus and between laboratories was also examined. 1) S.F.I. was measured with samples prepared by mixing liquid soybean oil and hardened beef tallow in various proportions. Melting heat from 0°C to the end of melting is proportional to the amount of hardened beef tallow, therefore, the heat of melting of 100% hardened beef tallow, 37cal/g, was used to calculated the S.F.I. The S.F.I. of all the samples at 30°C was slightly different from the values obtained by dilatometry but agreed with that from high-resolution NMR method. 2) Measurement of stepwise hydrogenated hardened beef tallow showed that the S.F.I. below 40 agreed well with the results from NMR and dilatometry. 3) As compared with other methods, temperature dependence of the S.F.I. measured by the DSC tends to the higher temperature side by about 3°C. This difference is considered to be due to the dynamic nature of measurement conditions in DSC whereas those in other methods are static. 4) There was no measurement error according to the kind of commercial apparatus used or between laboratories by this DSC, and reproducibility by the use of the same apparatus was relatively good.
Isemerization of l-pinane at 500600°C under reduced pressure gave dihydromyrcene in about 60% yield. An organo boron compound was prepared from the dihydromyrcene and diborane in tetrahydrofuran by usual manner, and was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide obtaining d-citronellol. When dihydromyrcene was treated with various organic acids in the presence of a catalytic amount of boron trifluoride ether complex or sulfuric acid, amixture of six-and seven membered cyclic esters was obtained.
The adsorption of Na-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (Na-DBS) onto the polyvinylalcohol Vinylon fiber was investigated. The adsorbed amount of Na-DBS was determined using the ultraviolet spectrum of the wavelength in 224 and 261mμ. The experimental errors by this method were about 3 to 12%. The maximum adsorption at the adsorption isotherm was recognized distinctly at 25°C, but that was not clear at 30°C. The occupied area of Na-DBS onto Vinylon fiber at maximum adsorption was 1, 040Å2/molec. at 25°C and 2, 250Å2/molec. at 30°C, respectively.