DTA curve of lauric acid series oil was fonud to show complicated changes according to the degree of hardening and the temperature and duration of standing. In the present series of work, the same experiments were carried out on fully hardened coconut oil fractionated by solvent fractionation or molecular distillation, and also on randomized hardened oil obtained by ester exchange, for comparative examination. 1) DTA curve of the fraction sparingly soluble in acetone showed little change according to the temperature of standing but DTA curve of the filtrate showed a considerable change when allowed to stand at 20°C. 2) The DTA curve of the fraction obtained by molecular distillation showed little change according to the temperature and period of standing, indicating a fairly great difference from the original hardened coconut oil. The DTA curve of the oil re-compounded according to the yield showed a considerable change as well in the original hardened oil. 3) The DTA curve of the oil randomized by ester exchange showed little change. It is thereby considered that coconut oil has a glyceride structure different from that of ordinary oils and its DTA curve is therefore complicated.
The NMR spectra of methyl ricinoleate and methyl ricinelaidate at 100MHz were studied. In these spectra, it was observed that the chemical shifts for the group -OH shift to the lower field according as the concentration of the compounds in CCl4 increases and also the patterns of the olefinic proton signals change. From the results of analysis of the NMR spectra, especially for the patterns of olefinic proton signals, by using the digital computer, the chemical shifts of olefinic protons were determined for each concentration of the compounds in CCl4, as shown in Table-2.
The process of urea adduct formation in a solid phase reaction has been investigated by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis. As a result, it has been confirmed that the urea adduct has been irreversiblly formed from the mixture of urea and solid fatty acid in a solid phase reaction, and the exothermic reaction in the urea adduct formation occured at the temperature below the melting point of both starting materials. The rapid development of a hexagonal prizm crystal of urea adduct can be easily observed under the microscope.
The reactive rate of adduct formation in solid phase reaction has been examined with reference to its length of fatty acid chain. Quantitative analysis of the amount of urea adduct is made by using X-ray, in which two reflection i.e. (100) reflection (7.14Å) of adduct and (003) reflection (9.113.3Å) of fatty acid are used for its calibration curve. As a result, it has been disclosed that the shorter the length of the fatty acid chain is, the greater the reactive rate of adduct formation becomes. Followed this the reactive rate of urea adduct formation has been investigated under various conditions and it has been recognized all the reaction are explained well by Jander's rate equation. The apparent activation energy obtained by Arrhenius's equation are as follows; C-12 : 31.1, C-14 : 26.1, C-16 : 22.0, C-13 : 22.9, C-15 : 19.2, C-17 : 15.6kcal/mol, which shows that the activation energy is decreased with the increase of the carbon number of the guest molecule fatty acid and there exists zigzag relation between even and odd membered fatty acids.
Isomerization of soybean oil, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate with thionyl chloride was investigated under various conditions. The amounts of conjugated dienes formed are relatively small, and infrared spectroscopic study shows that conjugated dienes are mainly of the trans-trans form. In the isomerization of methyl oleate with 1% thionyl chloride at 180°-250°C, the double bond migrates from 6 to 12 position. The thermal decomposition of thionyl chloride was examined by the IR spectral analysis and organoleptic test. Moreover, the effects of the possible thermal decomposition products of thionyl chloride, Cl2, SO2, and S2Cl2, upon the isomerization of soybean oil were studied. From the results, it can be inferred that, in the isomerization of soybean oil with thionyl chloride a greater fraction of the thionyl chloride will remain unchanged below 220°C. Moreover, it is considered that some of the decomposition products of thionyl chloride, if formed in small quantities, may play a role of catalyst.
In the previous paper, the authors investigated the effect of clay on detergency and developed a new artificially soiled cloth prepared from calcined clay. In this paper, the authors examined the reinforcement of the adhesive force of soil on fiber, and the correlation between the artificially soiled cloth, which was newly developed, and naturally soiled cloth on detergency. The adhesive force of the artificial soil on fiber increased by rubbing the soil on fiber with sponge more than fifty times. The adhesive force was hardly affected by both rubbing materials, such as aponge, plastic, wood and others, and rubbing temperature. The new artificially soiled cloth prepared from the amorphous clay behaved similarly to naturally soiled cloth under various washing conditions, and furthermore, had an excellent sensitivity for evaluating detergency of alkaline builders.
On the 13 sorts of fabrics (multi-fiber test cloth) which were soiled by simultaneous wear for a four-day period by an adult male, the adhering states of natural soils (a part of collar of soiled white-shirt and soiled underwear) were observed with the scanning electron microscope. The natural soils by neck wear are consisted of particulate soils and oily soils, and are distributed among the fibers in compliance with the sort of fabrics by mechanical rubbing and electro-static effect during wear. On the other hand, those of soiled underwear are mainly consisted of oily soils, and have a respective adhering state in compliance with the sort of fabrics. The adhering states through the sort of fabrics and the sort of soilings were discussed on the affinity between fabrics and soils, the geometries of fibers and yarns, the electrostatic phenomena, and on the presence of moisture in fabrics.
In order to elucidate the redeposition of natural soil during cleansing in suds, the effect of the nature of textile fiber and the amount of soil in washing solution on the redeposition has been studied. It was found that the redeposition depends on the amount of soils and the stability of dispersion in washing solution rather than the number of cycles in washing. On the other hand, the degree of redeposition for textile fiber increased in the order : cellulose<nylon<polyester.