The effect of water dissolved in safflower oil on dissolved amount of iron were studied. Safflower oil samples containing different amounts of the water dissolved in oil were prepared and iron oxide was added in those oils. Those samples were heated under reduced pressure at 30°C for 624h. The dissolved amount of iron was measured by means of neutron activation analysis. Consequently, the dissolved amount of iron increased from 0.45 to 2.82ppm when dissolved water increased from 43 to 2, 200ppm, and the linear relation between dissolved water and dissolved amount of iron was apparent. Under the same conditions, the effect of dissolved water on dissolved amount of iron in mixture of safflower oil-decanoic acid (weight ratio 1 : 1) was also studied. The results indicated that the dissolved amount of iron in mixture containing water decreased, as compaired with that of safflower oil containing dissolved water.
The formation of carvacrol (10) from α-Pinene oxide (1) by platinum group metal catalysts was studied. It was found that (10) was formed with other products from (1) in the presence of palladium catalyst at 200°C. The reaction scheme of (10) from (1) was proposed on the basis of results under various reaction conditions.
Some physicochemical properties of sodium alkylpoly (oxyalkylene) sulfates, especially of the surfactants with poly (oxypropylene) group, in aqueous solutions have been studied, and the following results are obtained ; 1) the Krafft point of the surfactant containing poly (oxypropylene) group in the molecule is lower than that of the corresponding alkylpoly (oxyethylene) sulfate, 2) accordingly, the tolerance of the surfactants for calcium ions (hard water) is excellent, 3) the interfacial tensions between oil and aqueous solutions of the surfactants are markedly depressed upon the addition of CaCl2 or MgSO4, 4) clouding phenomena similar to the nonionic surfactant solutions are found at relatively high concentrations of inorganic salts, 5) addition compound formation of the surfactants with some zwitterionic surfactants is observed in the hydrated solid phases below their Krafft points, and 6) the cmc values of the surfactants are lower than those of the corresponding alkylpoly (oxyethylene) sulfates. The above observations of 1) 4) originate from the low Krafft point of the surfactant with poly (oxypropylene) group. The clouding phenomena are of special interest among them, since no observation has been reported on the clouding of anionic surfactant solutions. The phenomena may be explained, when considered that the surfactants are salted-out and separated as liquid surfactant phases, because of their very low Krafft temperatures. The effects of poly (oxyalkylene) group introduced into the anionic surfactant molecules on their cmc are discussed quantitatively, employing the theory presented by Matsumoto and Tokiwa.
The interaction between an anthraquinoid acidic dye and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) was studied spectrophotometrically. Three types of interactions were turned out; (1) The dye formed insoluble 1 : 1 salt with HTAB in the presence of excess dye. In this case, most of the added HTAB was consumed for the salt-formation. (2) The resolution of dye-surfactant salt was brought about in the presence of excess HTAB over the dye concentration. This was explained as the result of complex formation. The complex was estimated to consist of a single dye and three HTAB molecules. The complexed dye was surrounded with the rather hydrophilic environment in this case. (3) In the region of micelle formation of the surfactant, some of dye complexes penetrated into micelles. The cmc of this system was calculated to be 0.49mM from the absorbance measurement. Above cmc, the dyes were distributed to both the complex and the micelle ; the distribution coefficient (K) was 1.02×102. The standard free energy change of dye penetration (G0p) was determined to be -0.30kcal·mol-1. The number of penetrated dye molecules into a single micelle was calculated.
The flow properties of 30% milk fat O/W emulsions containing monoglyceride and sorbitan ester were determined by a coaxial cylinder viscometer at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C. All the emulsions examined had a flow curve with hysteresis loop and yield values, and showed pseudoplastic flow during increasing shear rate and Bingham flow during decreasing shear rate. Since the logarithmic plot of subtracting yield stress from shear stress versus shear rate showed a linear relationship, the power law was applicable. The flow behavior index n approached unity as the temperature of the emulsions approached 40°C. As plastic viscosity (ηt) at shear rate 230s-1 decreased with increasing shearing time (t) and the curve of ln (ηt-η∞) vs (t) showed linearity, the relaxation time in time thinning behavior was obtained from the slope of the curve. Although the curve of ln ηtvs 1/T did not show perfect linearity, Andrade's equation appeared to be satisfactory within a rather narrow range of temperature in this study. A slight flection on the curve appeared at 20°C. This might be caused by melting of dispersed phase. Activation energy for flow was obtained from Andrade's equation. The flow behavior index was found to be proportional to the activation energy for flow when n>0.75. The influence of hydrocarbon chain length of sorbitan ester on flow properties and the influence of the flow properties on emulsion stability were also discussed.