Cosmetics and quasi-drugs will play new important roles in the aging and stressful society. We have proposed 3 clinical concepts, i.e., anti-drying, anti-UV radiation and anti-oxidation to prevent the skin aging. Especially, the importance of anti-oxidation is discussed in this paper. The peroxidation of human skin surface lipids has been investigated by a CL-HPLC (chemiluminescence-high performance liquid chromatography) system. Squalene monohydroperoxide was produced at the forehead and the scalp as well as in the dandruff under daily life conditions in most of the cases. Therefore it was considered that squalene was the first target lipid on a human skin surface by an oxidative stress. In order to confirm the effect of hydroperoxides of the skin on cultured cells and the living skin equivalent, an authentic sample was prepared. We have also clarified the reaction rate constants of the skin surface lipids with singlet oxygen and free radicals. And we have also confirmed that the application of cosmetics and the ingestion of aliments containing antioxidants had a preventive effect against the lipid peroxidation on skin surface.
Acylamino acid is a surfactant comprised of fatty acid and amino acids. There are several natural acylamino acids present as components in living tissuue and the research of acylamino acid started from biological interest. Acylglutamate is the first surfactant utilizing natural amino acid and is being actively sold as mild cleansing product due to its extreame mildness to the skin. Mild and environmentally gentle surfactants are eagerly being sought at present and this has led to increased demand for various acylamino acids. The properties and applications of various acylamino acids are explained and breaf introduction is made for other surfactants derived from amino acids.
This article reviews about hair growth and its cycle, male pattern baldness and its cause, hair growth promoters, and the evaluation methods for such promoters. The mechanism of hair growth and causes of male pattern baldness are still not clear, but recent studies on hair growth are bringing up some interesting and important facts. New discoveries on energy metabolism, interaction between hair matrix and dermal papilla, and action of androgens are discussed along with their application to the production of new hair growth promoters. A new hair growth promoter, monopentadecanoylglycerol (PDG), is discussed in relation to its effect for promating the energy metabolism.
Headspace analysis (HSA) is a useful technique to investigate new materials and create new fragrances. We have selected several fragrant flowers that smell good but hardly or never used for fragrance materials. And using HSA, we have investigated volatile components of that flowers, Hamanasu (Rosa rugosa Thunb.), Freesia (Freesia Hybrida Hort.), Gekkabijin (Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw.), and Phalaenopsis (Phal. schillerana Rchb. f.). Particularly about Phalaenopsis, we invesigated changes of main volatile components in day cycle and blooming cycle. About day cycle, it emitted mainly in daytime (from 5 am. to 1 pm.). About blooming cycle, it emitted from the beginning of flowering time, gradually gained as blooming and after full blossom it diminished gradually. Using that results, we reproduced the smell of that fragrant flower, and produced fragrant products that reminded the smell of them. About each flower, this paper describes the reasons of our selection, volatile components on HSA and applications for fragrant products.
Many different polymers are used in the cosmetic industry and many new ones have been developed through application of new synthetic technology. Polymer applications include thickeners emulsifiers, moisturizing agents, and conditioning agents, owing to properties such as surface activity, gelling and rheology. The reasons why the structures and features of the polymers make them suitable for use as hair conditioning agents are discussed along with trends in the development of new hair conditioning agents. New polymers with multifunctions should find increasing application as hair conditioning agents, in the future.
Fatty acids and their derivatives which have been used as soap, emollients and nonionic surfactants for cosmetics, are required to be more functional in order to meet the demand of consumers today. As important roles of certain lipids for epidermal barrier function have been clarified recently by dermatological studies, fatty acids and their derivatives like linoleic acid and fatty acid cholesterol esters can be expected to use as functional cosmetic ingredients to improve skin condition. In this paper, the roles of linoleic acid and fatty acid cholesterol esters, and their cosmetic application were reviewed. Fatty acids as percutaneous absorption enhancers and liposome as cosmetic ingredients were also described.
α- and β-Campholenic nitriles (1a), (2a) were prepared by various methods and converted to campholenic acid chlorides by hydrolysis and chlorination. The chlorocarbonylated campholenes were condensed with pyrrolidine, piperidine, 2-, 3-, or 4-methylpiperidines, and 2, 6- or 3, 5-dimethylpiperidines to obtain amide compounds (3) (16) in 3264 % yields in five steps, the first being imidation of α-pinene or camphor. Insecticidal activity of amide compounds (3) (16) toward Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Dermatophagoides farinae, Culex pipiens pallens, Musca domestica Linne and Blattella germanica were measured. On filter paper, amide compounds (3) (16) from (1) and (2) showed greater insecticidal activity than N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide for T. putrescentiae and D. farinae. Toward T. putrescentiae, amide compounds (3) (16) at 1.0 g/m2 expressed insecticidal activity from 75100 %, this range exceeding that of commercial isobornyltiocyano acetic acid. At 1.0 g/m2 for these amide compounds (3) (16), D. farinae was almost eliminated.
Ene-type chloride (5 a) was prepared with trichloroisocyanuric acid as a chlorination reagent from pentenylchromanol (3), obtained from myrcene and 2, 3, 5-trimethylhydroquinone in 3 steps. Chloride (5 a) reacted with 3, 7-dimethyloctylmagnesium bromide in the presence of CuCl (I) as the catalyst in THE to afford mixture consisting of SN2' type cross coupling products (7 a) and (8 a) with high regioselectivity. Compounds (5 b-e) reacted with the Grignard reagent in the presence of CuCl (I) to give SN2' type cross coupling products (7) and (8) with high regioselectivity Table-1. dl-α-Tocopherol was prepared in good yields by the hydrogenation of compounds (7 a) and (8 a).
Examination was made of interactions between an oil/water interface and latex and vesicle particles by measuring adsorbance in a suspension, particle size distribution and interfacial tension. The following results were obtained. In a diisobutylketone/water+amphoteric latex system, particles were found to be transported from the water phase to oil phase. However, in cyclohexane containing AOT an increased absorbance of an aqueous suspension was observed at acidic pH. The flocculation of suspended particles would thus appear to occur through the neutralization of positive charges on the latex surface by negative charges in AOT molecules. In a diisobutylketone/PC vesicle system, increased absorbance in suspension was also noted. Analysis of particle size distribution in the suspension indicated swelling and flocculation to be accelerated by solubilization of the oil phase into vesicles. However, on using cyclohexane, the dispersion of PC vesicles was stabilized. Surface tension measurement indicated adsorbed PC at the interface to prevent direct interaction of the oil phase with PC vesiclrs.
Estolide has numerous industrial applications, and can be synthesized from ricinoleic acid by heating at 220°C. Due to the high reaction temperature involved, this process leads to product coloring and ordor problems, thus limiting the application of this compound to food processing.Study was thus made to determine whether immobilized lipase could be uaed in the synthesis of estolide. The results obtained are as follows. 1) Estolide could be synthesized at 40°C by the catalytic activity of immobilized lipase. 2) This activity of immobilized lipase was made five times that of free lipase by co-immobilization with lecithin. 3) The condensation rate was made high by the addition of zeolite to remove water generated in the reaction. 4) Colorless estolide with a high condensation rate was synthesized using a bioreactor system consisting of a packed bed bioreactor and a dehydration column.