Novel surfactants with specific functions were sinthesized from inexpensive, commercially available bulk chemicals by convenient synthetic methods. All were characterized by features such as chemical degradability, catalitic activity for a halide displacement reaction (Finkelstein reaction), ability to disperse lime soap and complex with alkali metal cations. Applications for emulsion polimerization, surface-active properties, stability constants of complexes with alkali metal ions, and solubilization of alkali metal picrates in organic solvents were studies.
Terpenyl β-D-glucopyranosides (3 a-e) were prepared from terpene alcohols (2 a-e) and tetra-O-acetyl-a-u-glucopyranosyl bromide (1) by a modification of Koenigs-Knorr procedure in the presence of silver carbonate supported on silica gel or alumina, followed by deacetylation. In this study terpenyl β-D-glucopyranosides (3 a-e) were obtained from geraniol (2 a), nerol (2 b), citronellol (2 c), cis-3-hexenol (2 d), menthol (2 e) and all-trans-retinol (2 f) in relatively good yields. All-trans-retinyl β-D-glucuronide (5) was prepared in a similar manner from methyl 2, 3, 4-triacetyl-1-bromo-D-glucuronate (4) and all-trans-retinol (2 f) in 28% yield
Penicillium cyclopium lipase is capable of hydrolyzing monoacylglycerol (MG) and diacylglycerol (DG), but not triacylglycerol (TG). The hydrolysis of fish oil and bonito oil with Candida cylindracea lipase followed by free fatty acid (FFA) removal lead to the formation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) -rich DG and TG (acylglycerol mixture ; GMx). GMx was hydrolyzed with Penicillium cyclopium lipase. Fatty acid specificity of Penicillium cyclopium lipase for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). DG in GMx was hydrolyzed completely to give TG containing 51.9 % DHA. FFA obtained by the hydrolysis of GMx with Penicillium cyclopium lipase and DHA rich DG in GMx were allowed to react with immobilized Chromobacterium viscosum lipase to yield TG containing 53.9 % DHA. DHA-rich TG (240 g) were obtained from 1 kg of bonito oil. DHA yield from bonito oil to TG was 51.5 %.
Six groups of weanling male rats were fed diets containing 20 % (by weight) beef tallow, its randomized fat or their equal weight blends with palm olein, palm olein or soybean oil, as the control, for 28 d. Comparative studies were made on serum lipids, cholesterol and its metabolites in tissues and feces from the rats. The physical and chemical properties of dietary fats were also examined. 1) Beef tallow contained not only POO and SOP, as major components, but also saturated triacylglycerols, as minor components having high melting points. Compared with palm olein, beef tallow showed less SFC at 5°C and more SFC at 10°C or higher temperature, Since, less monounsaturated-disaturated acylglycerols (AG) but more trisaturated AG, as minor components having the highest melting point were present. Randomizing the tallow resulted in more SFC in a temperature region lower than 35°C, due to decreasing in monosaturated-diunsaturated AG and replacing unsaturated fatty acid bound at 2-position with saturated fatty acid bound at 1 or 3-positions in monounsaturated-disaturated AG. By blending with palm olein, SFC of beef tallow or its randomized fat became lower at any temperature, possibly due to decrease in trisaturated AG and increase, in low melting point components including linoleoyl AG. 2) Cholesterol content in serum (total and HDL), liver, heart and adipose tissue was basically the same among all 6 groups including the control (soybean oil) group. The analytical results on fatty acids in fecal lipids suggested the rats in the beef tallow group to preferentially excret the saturated fatty acids, rich in dietary fat, into the feces. The same was noted for palmitic acid in the palm olein group. Preferential excretion was observed in other groups except the control. The proportion of arachidonic acid in liver lipids was essentially the same for all 6 groups. 3) In feces, cholesterol content was basically the same among all groups, except the control (soybean oil). Coprostanol and lathosterol content was higher in the 2 blend groups of beef tallow or its randomized fat with palm olein than in other groups except the control. The same was noted for bile acids. The ratio of total metabolites/cholesterol was almost equal in all groups, although cholesterol content and that of its metabolites in the control were significantly higher than in the other 5 groups. 4) From these results, the effects of beef tallow, its randomized fat and their blends with palm olein on cholesterol metabolism are shown equivalent to those of palm olein and may be virtually the same as those of soybean oil.
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with a light scattering detector (mass detector) was used for the quantitative analysis of triacylglycerol, and a correction method for the quantitative data was developed. Three eluting solvents acetinitrile : acetone = 65 : 35 (same as previous paper), acetonitrile dichloromethane = 75 : 25 and acetone were used for this purpose. Signal intensity from the detector was found to vary with the molecular structure of triacylglycerol and the solvent used, and to increase with sample retention time. Signal intensity was strongly influenced by retention time than was molecular structure. The relationship between signal intensity and injected sample amount could be expressed by an empirical equation. Two constants in the equation were datermined based on sample retention times. Quantitative data could thus be corrected by the equation proposed, signal intensity and retention time. The application of this method to some randomized vegetable oils indicated the corrected value to be more accurate than obtained by a refractive index detector.
The thermostability of silicone oil and antioxidation effects of lard containing silicone oil were evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) and Rancimat methods. In programmed TG for silicone oil alone, the initial temperature of weight loss shifted to the higher temperature side with increase in viscosity. In programmed TG of lard samples to which silicone oil had been added, slight elevation in the initial temperature of weight loss was noted for several samples. For isothermal TG, thermostability evaluated based on the initial time of decomposition for lard samples to which a silicone oil had been added was found similar to oxidative stability measured by the Rancimat method. Antioxidant effects determined by the two methods failed to show any definite relationship with the type or amount of silicone oil added.