As a method for detection of foreign fats in lard, distance of long spacings in β-form crystal was measured with X-ray small angle scattering apparatus and the following facts were disclosed. 1) Values of (001) in lard were found to be 44.2 Å and there was no difference among the same species. These values were 45.3 Å in beef tallow and 44.9 Å in horse fat, showing difference by species. 2) There was a linear correlation between the values of (001) and compositional ratio when lard was mixed with beef tallow, hydrogenated lard and horse fat. Therefore the amount of foreign fat can be calculated from this curve. A very clear and characteristic phenomenon was found by the mixing of 2040% of beef tallow and 20% of hydrogenated lard, resulting in 2 solid solution and a large value of (001). 3) Distance of the long spacings of crystallized glyceride obtained by the Bomer method was found to be 44.6 A in either lard or beef tallow, there being no difference. 4) Rearrangement velocity is fast in lard and slow in beef tallow. This is considered to be due to the fact that the crystallized glyceride from beef tallow has a complicated composition of fatty acids and the chief component, palmito-distearine has an asymmetric form, with a long molecular chain.
Various bis-alkylphenols have been extensively used as anti-oxidants for lubricating oils in recent years, therefore, increasing interest is being placed on the structural analysis of these compounds. This paper deals with the separation and identification of a variety of bis-alkylphenols having methyl and/or tert-butyl group by paper chromatography. Peculiar Rf value range was given to these bis-alkylphenols by partition paper chromatography using TCP as the stationary phase and 70% ethyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Since their Rf values are 0.04 to 0.05 and fairly lower than those of alkylphenols, it is possible to discriminate bis-alkylphenols from alkylphenols. Each bis-alkylphenol could be identified by the solvent systems of n-cetane, liquid paraffin or chlorinated paraffin as the stationary phase and 60 or 80% ethyl alcohol as the mobile phase. The Rf values of bis-alkylphenols are mainly affected by steric hindrance of hydroxyl group by alkyl substituents in the 2 and 6 positions. Bis-alkylphenols can be classified into the following three groups from the Rf values on the solvent system of liquid paraffin-80% ethyl alcohol. Group A canbe identified by the solvent system of chlorinated paraffin-80%ethylalcohol, group B by liquid paraffin-80% ethyl alcohol, and group C by chlorinated paraffin-60% ethyl alcohol.
It has been observed that hydrogenated coconut oil develops a strong and characteristicflavor duringstorageat about 5°C for 2 months, while it seldom does during storage at 20°C for 2 months. The volatile materials developed during storage of hydrogenated coconutoils at 5°C and 20°C for 2 months were collected by deodorization into dry ice traps, respectively. Flavor componentsof the volatile matter were fractionated by gas chromatography, and identified chemically by their IR spectraand retention times. It was concluded that the development of the characteristic flavor during the storage of hydrogenated coconut oil at 5°C was caused by the appearance of free fatty acid swhich were produced during the storage, and n-hexanoic and n-octanoic acid had the much greater sharein the flavor. Andsplittingof the oil during the storage seemed to occure selectivelyin the esterbondwithrelatively lower fatty acids. Non-acidic volatile compounds were found more in the hydrogenated coconut oil stored at 20°C thanin the oil stored at 5°C However, they did not have any responsibility for the characteristic flavor.
It is generally accepted that the deodorized condensates, obtainedin the refining process of vegetableoils, contain 1 to 10% tocopherols. The condensates are good raw materials for the preparation of α-tocopherol or tocopherol concentrates. The concentrate containing 42.6% tocopherols as α-type was prepared by means of esterification and distillation of the soybean oil condensate. Thin-layer chromatography was applied to analyze the concentrate components prior to studies on utilization of the concentrate, and the following results were obtained ; 1) For the separative analysis of these components, nonpolar and polar developing solvent systems were at least necessary. Hydrocarbons, squalene and five other unknown components were separated eachother in nonpolar sopolar solvent system such as petroleum benzene. On the contrary, α, γand δ-tocopherol, higher alcohols and sterols were separated to give each spotsin polar solvent system such as n-hexane : ether (7 : 3 vol/vol). 2) These spots were possible to detect by means of UV illuminating and such solution spraying as iodine-benzene, 50% sulfuric acid or Emmerie-Engel reagent. 3) Fractionation of the components was possible to separate into six fractions on thin-layer chromatographic plate. These fractions were ; least polar fraction (I) such as hydrocarbons and squalene, intermediate polar fraction (II) such as tocopherols, most polar fraction (III) such as alcohols and sterols, (I) + (II), (I) + (III), and (II) + (III), respectively. 4) With the exception of the above described components, other two components were recognized to have reducing power by means of coloration with Emmerie-Engel reagent and from consumption of ceric ammonium sulfate. Furthermore, inspection on IR and UV spectra suggested that they were β, γandδ-tocopherol derivatives substituted with nonpolar large radicals for the hydrogen atom at 5 or 7 positionin benzene ringof tocol.
The effects on surface activities by mixing the sodium stearyl and oley' sulfates were studied. (1) The solubility of stearyl sulfate in water increased by mixing of oleyl sulfate. (2) The mixture showed double kraft points and their position shifted with the amounts of oleyl sulfates. (3) There was not so much difference between the surface-tension of each solutions in relatively higher concentrations, but in dilute solutions (below 0.03 %) surface-tension became higher as oleyl sulfate content increased. cmc-Values of both sulfates estimated from conductivity method and surface-tension method were not so differed. (4) Carbon dispersing abilities of 0.05 % concentration were same, but in the case of 0.1 % solution the mixture showed higher abilities than solitary solutions.
The present paper deals with synthesis of the diethers with two hydroxy groups and their surface activities. Hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl chlorohydrin ethers were obtained by the addition of epichlorohydrin to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in the presence of stannic chloride (yield 95 %).From these ethers and potassium alcoholates, the diethers with two hydroxy groups or α-alkyl α'-hydroxyethyl (propyl) glyceryl diethers (alkyl ; octyl, 2-ethylhexyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexa-decyl and 2-hexyldecyl) were obtained, and their purities were confirmed by elementary analysis, IR analysis and OH values. The surface tensions of aquous solutions of these diethers were determined by the du Nouy'smethod and it was observed that the cmc of α-octyland α-decyl diethers are higher than those of monohydroxy ethers (hydroxypropoxyethyl) octyl and decyl ethers). And in the solutions of α-dodecyl and α-tetradecyl diethers, the cmc was observed which were not observed in the solutions of monohydroxy ethers with same alkyl groups. Then, dispersing power of carbon black in water, penetrating power into the fabric and emulsifying power for kerosine or rape seed oil and watersystems were examined for α-octyl and α-2-ethylhexyl diethers and hydroxyethoxyethyl octyl ether.α-Octyl diether hada little higher dispersing power, than the other two ethers however, this was much lower than that of commercial nonylphenyl ether with 10 moles of ethylene oxide. As for the penetrating power, there is little difference between di- and mono-hydroxy ethers. The emulsifying power of 2-ethylhexyl ether is much more excellent, especially for kerosine and water system, than that of monohydroxy ether.