A main component of multibranched-chain fatty acids, separated earlier from fin whale blubber oil and from blue whale bone oil, has been conclusively identified by means of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectrometry, and gas-liquid chromatography as 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid. This acid was synthesized from phytol for comparison with the naturally occurring multibranched-chain fatty acids. In addition, the acid was present in minor amounts in the blubber oils from sei whale and from sperm whale.
Two typical kinds of commercial soap (framed soap and milled soap) were studied on their anisotrophic property by means of X-ray diffraction method. On the framed soap, the cooled surface showed more intense diffraction on long spacing peaks than any of those on the perpendicular faces to the cooled surface. Thus, the anisotrophy on the cooled surface of framed soap should cause the uniaxial orientation. On the other hand, the milled soap showed marked double orientation. This anisotrophy may be caused by the action of shearing forces in plodder.
Cis, trans isomers of octadecenoate and octadecadienoate were chromatographed on the silicic acid-silver nitrate column. Gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of the elute showed that the components were separated into six groups. 1) Trans-9, 10 and 11-octadecenoate. 2) Trans, trans- (9, 11) and (10, 12) -conjugated octadecadienoate. 3) Cis, trans- (9, 11) and (10, 12) and (11, 13) -conjugated octadecadienoate and cis-l3-octadecenoate.
Surfactants having propane sulfonate group were prepared from fatty alcohols, acids, amides and amines. Surface active properties of their aqueous solutions were examined for surface tension, foaming-, penetrating-, emulsifying powers, hard water resistance and CMC. In general, their CMG's were lower than those of sodium alkyl-sulfates, and their surface active properties were excellent even at lower concentrations. As to the relationship between the alkylchain length in these derivatives and the surface active properties, lower surface tension was obtained by C14-and C16-derivatives, excellent emulsifying property by C18-derivatives, and superior foaming and penetrating powers by C12- and C18F1-derivatives.
Although metal soaps have little solubility in water, they are soluble in aqueous solution of surface active agent in some extent. To make the most of this fact, surface active properties of several metal (Li, Mg, Ca, Ba and Na, K- reference substances) soaps in water were investigated. When an alkaline earth metal soap is added to the aqueous solution of dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC), it dissolves without causing precipitation or becoming cloudy, to the extent of about 1/3 molar ratio of metal soap to DPC. Especially ricinoleates show high solubilities. A remarkable synergistic effect was observed for the values of surface tension of the mixed solutions.In all cases the molar ratios of the metal soap to DPC range were from about 1/3 to 1/10 aprox., and when the concentration of the metal soap was about 1×10-5 to 1×10-2mole/l except the concentration of DPC was over 2×10-2 mole/l approx. in the mixed solution, the equilibria or minimum values of surface tension were observed. Laurates were the most excellent values and lowered to 25 dynes/cm, ricinoleates also lowe red to 31 dynes/cm. Although there were no great differences with respect to kinds of the metals, barium salts showed better result. The inclinations of the contact angle of the mixed solutions against the chromium plate were very similler to that of surface tension depression with the variations of mole ratios, kinds of fatty acid residues and metals, the ranges of effective concentration and with remarkable synergistic effects. Barium laurate solution showed about 10° angle. In case of electric conductivity of the mixed solution, the rate of increase in specific conductance decreased with increase in the concentration, and the breaking point (CMC) in the curve of specific conductance against the concentration which usually seen in the single system were not observed, in either cases molar atio of DPC to metal soap was fixed or varied. Alcaline earth metal-salts, especially ricinoleates, showed high values.