Sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) was shown to be suitable as an additive for a highly concentrated coal water mixture (CWM) used by electric power plants. By combining PSS with an appropriate auxiliary CWM was able to be produced with various coals. Using colloid vibration potential (CVP) technique by which the ζ-potential of particles in a concentrated colloidal dispersion can be measured, we have developed a novel technique to measure the ζ-potential of coal particles in CWM. By means of this technique the dispersion mechanism of CWM was estimated. A technique for PSS production, in which styrene is polymerized by cationic polymerization and the resultant oligostyrene is sulfonated successively, was also developed.This new technique make possible the manufacture of PSS at low cost.
Sphingophospholipids were separated from the water-soluble fractions of chloroformmethanol extracts of etiolated soybean cotyledons and hypocotyls, and purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Yields, based on dry weights of the lipids, were 0.1 % and 0.6% for cotyledons and hypocotyls, respectively. Molar ratios of the constituents and FAB-Mass spectrum of the lipophilic moiety liberated by alkaline hydrolysis showed the glycolipids to be phytoglycolipids with long saccharide chains, consisting of more than ten molecules of arabinose and galactose, linked to the core tetrasaccharide portion, glucosaminosyl- glucuronosyl (mannosyl) -inosityl residue combined to ceramide phosphate. Permethylation analysis, suggested the neutral saccharide moiety to be the 1, 6-linked galactose backbone from which arabinosyl chains branched out at position 3 of galactose residures. The ceramide residures were composed of trihydroxy sphingoids (mainly 4-hydroxysphinganine) and 2-hydroxy fatty acids (mainly 2-hydroxylignoceric acids). They were indentical with those of other phytoglycolipids. The chemical compositions of the neutral saccharide chains as well as component ceramide species of soybean seedling-phytoglycolipids differed somewhat in cotyledons and hypocotyls.
Degradation of oil from high chlorophyll (CHL) level rapeseed by heating at 180°C was compared with that from ordinary CHL level rapeseed. The rates of decomposition of tocopherols (TOC) and formation of polymerized oil served as indexes for evaluating degradation. TOC in refined oil from high CHL seed decomposed more rapidly than that in oil from ordinary CHL seed. The rates of decomposition increased as the degree of refinement, suggesting the formation of pro-oxidants to be formed via the refining process. Pro-oxidants formed in oil from high CHL level rapeseed could not be easily removed by bleaching or deodorization. Essentially the same was noted for the formation of polymerized oil. Addition of acylated sterylglycosides at 100 ppm suppressed TOC decomposition in oil from high CHL rapeseed, but was not effective in reducing the formation of polymerized oil.
The fluorescence polarization of a fluorescence probe embedded in vesicle bilayers was assessed for dicarboxylic acid surfactant/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) mixtures. The effects of additive surfactants on membrane fluidity were investigated. Simultaneously, mixed vesicles size was estimated from light scattering and vesicle formation was confirmed by electron microscopic observation. With increase in hydrocarbon chain length of additive surfactants, transition temperature of membrane fluidity increased. The transition temperature rose in an order, N-acyl-L-aspartic acid (CnAsp) /DMPC, alkenylsuccinic acid (CnSA) /DMPC, and fatty acid/DMPC systems. For the C14SA/DMPC mixed system, size was not affected by mole fraction of a surfactant, while transition temperature varied with the addition of C14SA. For the C12Asp/DMPC system, transition temperature showed no change but particle size remarkably decreased with mole fraction.
Nickel content in oils and fats at various processing stages in a production line was determined. Soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, palm olein, fish oil, lard and beef tallow were examined for this parameter. Samples were collected various stages ; before catalyst addition (starting material), following hydrogenation (hydrogenated oil), and removal of catalyst (catalyst- removed oil), during bleaching (bleached oil) and at the final refining stage of deodorization (deodorized oil). 1) The nickel-catalyst was almost completely removed at the catalyst-removal stage. Nickel content in the deodorized oil was only 0.04 ppm or less. The nickel-catalyst in hydrogenation is thus almost totally removed from oils during the refining process. 2) Acid value (AV) and peroxide value (POV) of deodorized oils were below 0.06 and 0 meq/kg, respectively, indicating that the oils were thoroughly refined.