Of the hydrophilic groups functioning as surface-active agents, sugar esters of the higher fatty acid have long been known. Recently, alkyl glycosides have been found to be similar surface-active agents, and are being applied domestically as detergents for kitchen and so forth. Several properties have been observed which have lead to the use of alkyl glycosides. They are nonionic surface-active agent, with high stability and good lathering. They are also low in toxicity, low in skin irritability, and is biodegradable. Alkyl glycosides are not just surface-active agents, however. They can be used in cellulose processing, are enzyme stabilizers, have applications in the biochemical field, and are components used in artificial cell (liposome). In the future, it is to be supposed, functional compounds containing sugar components, such as alkyl glycosides, will see increasingly wide-spread use.
Determination was made of the rates of icosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into triolein and sardine oil triglyceride (TG). Three kinds of lipases (Lipase OF from Candida cyrindracea, Lipase A from Aspergillus sp. and Lipase TOYO from Chromobacterium viscosum) were first immobilized onto Celite 545. A preliminary study was then performed to determine optimum conditions for acidolysis by conducting this process between triolein and palmitic acid, using these immobilized lipases including LipozymeTH (Mucor miehei lipase was immobilized on a macroporous anion exchange resin). Optimum water contents for Lipase OF, Lipase A, Lipozyme, and Lipase TOYO reaction systems were 20.38%, 10.24%, 6.3810.38%, and 5.18%, respectively, and the optimum immobilized lipase amount was about 250 mg for any of the four lipases. Under the above conditions, the acidolysis of triolein between pure EPA and then DHA was carried out. EPA incorporation rate was found highest in the system using Lipase OF (25.09%), whereas in the case of DHA, it was highest in the system using Lipase TOYO (23.02%). Finally, acidolysis of sardine oil TG with an EPA, DHA concentrated free fatty acid mixture (EPA+DHA : 68.83%) was carried out and the results examined. As a result of the low incorporation rates of EPA and DHA into the original sardine oil TG, the percentage of DHA in the reactant TG doubled in the reaction systems using Lipase TOYO and Lipozyme.
Three groups of weanling male rats were fed diets containing 20% palm oil, palm olein, or soybean oil as a control, for 28 days. Serum, liver, adipose tissue, and feces from these rats were used for analyzing cholesterol and its metabolites. The chemical and physical properties of palm oil and its fractionated oils were also examined. 1) Palmitic acid in palm oil was predominantly located at the 1-or 3-position of triglyceride, while oleic acid, the 2-position. By fractionating the palm oil into the stearin and the olein fractions, saturated triglycerides, such as tripalmitin, high melting point components in palm oil could be concentrated into the stearin fraction. 2) No significant differences in the concentrations of total and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and total bile acids in serum could be detected among rats fed palm oil, palm olein and soybean oil. Palmitic acid, rich in palm oil and palm olein, was found present as a minor constituent in serum lipids of rats fed these oils, and preferentially excreted in the feces. 3) Cholesterol content in both liver and adipose tissue was essentially the same in the palm oil and palm olein groups, and soybean oil group, while the content of cholesterol and its metabolites in the feces of the former two groups were significantly lower than those of the latter group. However, the ratio of the metabolites to cholesterol in the feces was basically the same among the three groups. Thus possibly, the effect of palm oil or palm olein on cholesterol metabolism in rat may be equivalent to that of soybean oil. 4) Based on the above findings, the preferential excretion of palmitic acid, rich in palm oil and palm olein in the feces may possibly be due to the absence of any differences in serum cholesterol levels in rats fed one of these oils and soybean oil.
One important problem stemming from coal oil mixture (COM) utilization is the generation of cohesion products on the walls on the equipment of the COM flowing process (dynamic instability). The stability of coal slurry fuel (CSF) was examind in this study using, with suitable additives, the “Cylinder soaking test” and “Pipe passing test”, developed in our previous work. COM with additive-A (COM-A) was conducted and considerably more cohesion was detected than when using additive B. This clearly demonstrates the stability of COM. These tests can thus be used to rapidly assess the stability of COM. Even when using additive B, greater cohesion was detected under condition of high shear stress and temperature. Using a coal water mixture (CWM) with various additives, “Cylinder soaking test” and “Pipe passing test” were carried out. Coal mean particle size in CWM was about half that inraw coal, with ash content being slightly higher than in raw coal. Coals of fine particle size and high ash content may thus possibly cohere predominantly, this being quite consistent with the findings of studies on COM. The rapid estimation of CSF stability as shown here was found applicable to COM and should prove quite useful for the preparation of high performance additives of COM and CWM in the future.
Determination was made of fatty acid components of minke whale blubber oils as a part of “Japanese 1987/1988 research plan on the feasibility of -program of research on southern hemisphere minke whales and preliminary research on the marine ecosystem in the Antarctic-”. Blubber was obtained from 8 male immature, 1 male maturing, 16 male mature, 4 female immature and 9 female mature (pregnant) minke whales caught in Antarctic ocean from January to March of 1988. Oil content varied widely from 11.9% to 52.1%, according to the sex and the age of the animal. All blubber oils contained about 45 fatty acid components varying in composition. The major fatty acids were 18 : 1, 16 : 1, 16 : 0, 20 : 5, 14 : 0 and 22 : 6, where n : m indicates fatty acids with n carbon atoms and m e=c double bonds.
Three modified methods for measuring cloud point using a cooling bath in accordance with JIS (K 2269-1980) were compared with the present JOCS method for many kinds of oils. The results of five collaborative studies conducted by 10 laboratories indicated that statistical deviation among these methods were very little and that no significant defferences could be found between these and presently used methods. These modified methods facilitate cloud point measurement since the temperature of the cooling bath can be more easily controled than the conventional methods.
Methyl esters derived from diazomethane esterification the components of Pinus Elliottii Engelm.resin were analyzed in detail by means of GLC and GC/MS.Abietate 8, isopimarate 5, Δ8, 9isopimarate 6, and neo alietate 9 were found to be the main components, and seven components dehydroabietate 7, pimarate 2, sandaracopimarate 3, sandaracopimaral 1, 15-hydroxyabietate 10, and 7 α-and 7 β-hydroxyhydroabietate 11, 7-oxodehydroabietate 12, as minor components. Analysis was also made of methyl esters derived from diazomethane esterification the components of South Part of American and Chinese gum resins. The components of Pinus Elliottii Engelm. resin were quite similar to those of American gum resin.