The composition of the acetone-insoluble lipids obtained from Japanese Littleneck, Tapes japonica (Deshayes) was studied. The acetone-insoluble lipids were mostly composed of phospholipids. Procedures used for the analysis of the constituents of phospholipids were as follows; silicic acid column chromatography of intact lipids, and paper chromatography of the water-soluble hydrolysis products of phospholipids according to Dawson, were found to be unsatisfactory. Thin-layer chromatography was not able to separate plasmalogens from analogous diacylphospholipids. Two-dimentional thin-layer chromatography according to Owens, which based on the specific hydrolysis of plasmalogens to lysophospholipids in the presence of mercuric chloride spray reagent was effective for the analysis of plasmalogens. By means of this method, phospholipids were separated into individual phospholipid, and lipid phosphorus was determined. The results of the analysis were as follows; phospholipids were rich in ethanolamine phospho-lipids, and these were 23.1% phosphatidyl ethanolamine, 9.2% phosphatidal ethanolamine (ethanolamine plasmalogen), and 17.8% sphingo-ethanolamine. Other phospholipids determined were 19.8% phosphatidyl choline, 10.8% phosphatidyl serine, and 6.0% phosphatidyl inositol.
The polymerization of linoleic acid, and its methyl ester, in the presence of thionyl chloride was studied under various conditions. It was found that the polymers were obtained in high yields and the maximum polymer content of the product under the following reaction condition was about 75% in the case of using the methyl ester as starting material : catalyst concentration 0.5 wt%, reaction temperature 300°C, and reaction time 20 hr. The polymer content of the product obtained from linoleic acid was smaller than that of the product from methyl linoleate under the same reaction conditions. The dimer separated from reaction product by molecular distillation was catalytically dehydrogenated. From the results of analyses of the dehydrogenated dimer, it was confirmed that the polymerization involved mainly the Diels-Alder reaction. Moreover, the above results and other information showed that some other type of polymerization reaction seemed to occur.
Properties and fatty acid composition of the raw material oils and fats were determined and another determination was similary made on the 40 kinds of commercial household margarine, and approximate nature of material oils and fats used was presumed from the characteristics of their fatty acid components. (1) In the identification, the following facts were considered that vegetable oils and fats with the exception of the laurine oil, showed high content of C18 (over 70%) and scarce content of C14 : 1and C16 : 1 as well as odd-carbon-number acids, while the hydrogenated fish and whale oil had more C16 : 1 (7.6 '11.7% and 7.6 '9.7%) and C20 and over higher fatty acids (9.1 and 16.7%). (2) As various kinds of raw materials are used in household margarine in our country, the fatty acid composition is very complicated. There were 12 samples among the products packed in carton which were judged as pure vegetable origin, and 18 samples were found to contain laurine oil and some contained 56.9% of this. Also, there were 2 samples which contained chiefly hydrogenated fish and whale oils. (3) The main components of the paper-wrapped margarines and no-wrapped table margarines were hydrogenated fish and whale oils, and there were 2 samples which used laurine oil.
Effect of the surfactants for corrosion of iron powder by acid was studied. Amounts of undissolved residue of iron powder in dil. aqueous sulfuric acid solution in the presence of the surfactants at every five minutes were measured. The results were as follows. 1) Sodium dilauryldithiophosphate, laurylpyridinium chloride and thiourea etc. retarded considerably the rate of dissolution of iron. Rise in the reaction temperature from 36 to 65°C decreased repressionabilities by the surfactants at considerable rate, except sodium dilauryldithiophosphate. 2) In order to make clear co-operation of surfactants, combinations between the main component such as Disol-S, stearic acid, dilauryldithiophosphate and the subcomponent of other surfactants were tested. Among the above combinations of surfactants, the best result was obtained by the cooperative use of sodium dilauryldithiophosphates and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate which revealed a synergism at 30-50°C.