Selective hydrogenation of chicken and lard oil with copper-chromium-manganese oxide catalyst was investigated for the purpose obtaining low melting hardened oils. The results are as follows ; 1) Hydrogenation conditions of 200°C, 04 kg/cm2 and 2 wt% of catalyst were used from the results of the preliminary works. 2) Both reactivity and selectivity of these oils under pressure were higher than those of under atmospheric pressure. Iodine value of these oils obtained by the reaction under atmospheric pressure was 6668 and polyunsaturated fatty acids remained were more than 4.5%. 3) Saturated fatty acids were not formed from the reactions under atmospheric pressure and a very small amount of saturated acids was found in the oils reacted under pressure. 4) The reactivity and selectivity of lard oil was higher than those of chicken oil. The fatty acid compositions of both hardened oils were almost the same. Higher trans-acids were formed in chicken oil than in lard oil and melting points SFI became higher with the increase of trans-acids. 5) Oxidative stability of hydrogenated lard oil was higher than hydrogenated chicken oil but various antioxidants were considerably effective for hydrogenated chicken oil.
Many flavor deteriorations in lipid-containing foods are attributable to autoxidation of their lipids.. It is well known that autoxidized oils show unpleasant taste and odor. However, little reserch has been made on their taste. This paper deals with the taste of autoxidized soybean oil, and the elucidation of contributing matters to bitter taste. The oil with peroxide value of 2212 was used for the experiments, , because it had the strongest bitter and stimulant taste and astrigency characteristic among autoxidized oils. After the systematic fractionation as shown in Fig.-1, each fraction was added to the fresh oil on the basis of yields or acid value, and tested organoleptically. A strong bitter taste was detected in both free fatty acids and deacidified glyceride fractions. During several chromatographic analysis, the bitter substance in the former was supposed to be polar oxidized fatty acids rich in functional groups. The volatile compound fraction had a strong astrigency, which may be caused by carbonyl compounds.
An Automated method was developed for the determination of anionic surfactants in detergents with Technicon Auto Analyzer II on the basis of the Methylene Blue spectrophotometric method. Sample solutions were introduced into the continuous flow of the mixture of chloroform and the Methylene Blue solution. Both phases were mixed well in the Teflon mixing coil and the complex formed was extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase was separated continuously and its absorbance was measured at 650 nm. The relative extractability of the complex of various anionic surfactants and Methylene Blue was improved by the addition of methanol and using the Teflon mixing coil. Anionic surfactants were determined in the range of 1×10-34×10-3 M. Twenty samples could be determined within 1h.
The detergency building action with sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and the physico-chemical properties of the aqueous solutions of binary systems consisting of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and ether polycarboxylate type organic builders were studied, and their combined properties were discussed. The detergency were tested on naturally soiled cotton patches and the detergency powers were evaluated by Scheffe's method in a detergent system formulating LAS. Measurements were made on calcium ion sequestration capacities and dispersing capacities for manganese dioxide in the aqueous binary builder solution. From the results summarized in Fig.-1Fig.-5, it is evident that the binary components of STPP with tested organic builders except TMETA show the synergistic property in the MnO2 dispersion power, but don't show both in Ca chelating and detergency building properties. The mixture of STPP and TMETA is as much effective as STPP in detergency building action and MnO2 dispersing power at any ratios, althouth the chelating power of mixture increased in proportion to the amount of STPP.
The formation of carvacrol  from carvomenthene epoxide  by platinum group metal catalysts was studied. It was found that  was formed from  in the presence of palladium catalyst at 150200°C. The maximum yield (83.3%) of  was obtained by treating  (5×10-2 mol) with palladium catalyst (1×10-3 mol) at 200°C for 12h.
The effect of relative concentration of shift reagents, Eu (fod) 3 and Pr (fod) 3, on the proton chemical shifts of the methyl esters of saturated, oleic, petroselinic, erucic, linoleic, linolenic, and stearolic acids was represented as figures comparable with one another. The shift reagent, Pr (fod) 3, was superior to Eu (fod) 3 in complete separation of the signals for olefinic and the neighporing methylene protons from those for the other methyl and methylene protons. Estimation of total unsaturated fatty acids in fatty acid mixtures was possible by calculation from the integrated areas of two peaks (methoxycarbonyl methyl and non-diallylic α-methylene to double bonds) isolated as the result of the Pr (fod) 3-induced shift. Difference in the induced shift between the methoxycarbonyl methyl protons of methyl oleate and petroselinate was observed. By the use of the induced shift, methyl petroselinate in mixed methyl esters could also be determined from the integrated areas of the separated singlets for the methoxycarbonyl methyl protons, the isolated multiplet for C-6 olefinic proton, and a peak for methylene protons near ester linkage.
The analysis of inorganic builders in detergent powders was studied by means of laser Raman spectrometry after the extraction with 95% ethanol. The Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of typical inorganic builders, that is, sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10), sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7), sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfate, were measured. The characteristic peaks of each compound were located at 1090 cm-1, 1065 cm-1, 1020 cm', and 978 cm-1, respectively. We found that each component was able to be readily detected from Raman spectra of mixtures of four compounds. The Raman spectra were applied to the analysis of some commercial detergent powders and it was clarified that builders of each of the samples can be readily identified by the characteristic peaks mentioned above. The determination of Na5P3O10, Na4P2O7, Na2CO3, and Na2SO4 in the detergent powders were made by using sodium formate as an internal standard. It was shown that the analytical curve for each component exhibits a good linearity, and quantity of each of the builders in commercial detergent powders can be determined with good precision.
H7.0のアルコール水溶液中での銅 (II) によるリノール酸 (LA) の自動酸化に対するタンパク質並びにペプチドの効果を35℃暗所の条件で調べた。タンパク質並びに600以上の分子量をもつペプチドは銅 (II) イオンと不溶性の複合体を形成し, 銅 (II) によるLAの自動酸化を阻害した。ジペプチド並びに分子量200のペプチドは銅 (II) イオンと可溶性の複合体を形成し, 銅 (II) によるLAの自動酸化を促進した。しかし塩基性ジペプチドは銅 (II) によるLAの自動酸化を阻害した。一般に, 銅 (II) -酸性あるいは中性ジペプチド複合体の酸化促進効果はリノール酸ヒドロペルオキシド (LAHPO) 分解に対する触媒活性と比例した。以上の事実は銅 (II) -塩基性ジペプチド複合体以外の可溶性複合体はLAHPOを分解することによってラジカル生成を促進し, そして不溶性の複合体は銅 (II) イオンを複合体内に閉じこめることによって, 銅 (II) イオンの触媒活性を不活性化していることを示唆している。
The blood red cell numbers of Carasius auratus (gold fishes) were decreased when exposed to a 20 ppm aq LAS solution. This phenomenon was also observed in fishes that were put under oxygen-deficient or carbon dioxide-saturated conditions. The results reveal that the possible damage of the gill by LAS may cause anoxia and finally death of fishes.