We built as a trial an automatic measuring system of acid values of different varnishes, which can be used in a factory to decrease errors by a manual handling and simplify a titration work. A change in colour with phenolphthalein at the end point of titration is read out as a change of voltage and the total volume of titrant is converted into the voltage by the operating circuit. Acid values of benzoic acid, fatty acids, and alkyd varnishes were measured by our system and obtained results are more accurate than results by a manual method in the coefficient of variation.
Amphoteric surface active N-substituted amino acid derivatives containing long chain alkoxyl radicals and the methylmethylene, ethylene, and methylethylene radicals between amino and carboxyl groups were prepared, then their antimicrobial properties against G. positive, G. negative bacilli and fungi were determined. It was confirmed that N-substituted β-alanine derivatives showed higher antimicrobial properties than the corresponding α-alanine derivatives. The effect of side methyl group between an ammonium and a carboxylate radical was not clear. The surface tension of the N-substituted β-alanine aqueous solution was about 3035dyn/cm in the pH range from 3 to 11.
The effects of micellar structure on the oxidation of p-isopropyl benzaldehyde (PBA) in aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactants were investigated. The micellar aggregation number was determined with a low-angle light-scattering photometer while the determination of micellar shape and volume were made by measuring viscosity. The summary of the results is shown below. 1) The micellar aggregation number decreased with the increase in the oxyethylene chain length of the nonionic surfactants. 2) The micelle was spherical and the micellar volume remained approximately the same regardless of the oxyethylene chain length of the nonionic surfactants. 3) The binding site of PBA within micelles was the core of any of the nonionic surfactants. 4) The oxidation of PBA in the micellar system was inhibited with the increase in the oxyethylene chain length of the nonionic surfactants. Since the micellar core having a few aggregation number had a few hydrocarbon chain, the hydrophobic bond between oxygen and hydrocarbon decreased. Consequently, it was presumed that the oxygen concentration of such micellar cores was low. From these results, the oxidation of PBA was inhibited with the increase in the oxyethylene chain length of the nonionic surfactants, this reason was thought to be due to the solubilization of PBA in the core having a lower oxygen concentration.
Artemisia ketone and its related compounds were prepared from alkenylmagnesium chloride and lower carboxylic acids. By the reaction of 2, 2-dimethyl-3-butenoic acid and methallylmagnesium chloride, isoartemisia ketone was obtained in yield of 28%. Isomerization of isoartemisia ketone with p-toluenesulfonic acid gave artemisia ketone in yield of 84%. Similarly, 2, 5, 5, 8-tetramethyl-1, 7-nonadien-4-one was prepared from 2, 2, 5-trimethyl-4-hexenoic acid. (±) -ar-Turmerone was obtained from 3- (p-methylphenyl) butyric acid in the similar manner.
Phase behavior of three coexisting phases, i.e., surfactant, water and oil phases has been studied in pseudo four-component system of C8H17SO3Na/octanol/brine/2, 2, 4 trimethylpentane. Assuming that 1) most of surfactant is dissolved in a surfactant phase, 2) cosurfactant (octanol) is distributed among surfactant and oil phases, 3) brine is regarded as one component, a simple method to determine the plane of the three-phase triangle in a composition tetrahedron of the pseudo four-component system was obtained. By this method, it was found that the solubility of octanol in the surfactant phase is increased with increasing salinity, whereas that in the oil phase is decreased.
Washing experiments were performed by implementing different modes of action on a single sheet of artificially soiled cotton fabric : bending alone at one portion and a combination of bending and friction at another. The degrees of reflection at different portions were measured to separately evaluate the effects of bending and those of friction. A simple device was employed to measure the energy given to fabric sheets when they are bent at some curvatures. The energy data were used to assess the washing effects based on bending. The results obtained were as follows. 1) In washing, the effects of friction appeared in a short period of time, but those of bending took more time to appear. 2) The effects of bending and friction were both approximately 30 percent of the entire washing effects. 3) The effects of bending increased monotonously with the curvature until it reached 0.2 (1/mm); and there was no increase any longer for greater curvatures. 4) The effects of bending were practically equal independent of positive and negative curvatures (front and reverse sides of the sheet). 5) The washing effects based on bending were practically proportional to the energy given to the sheet for a curvature of 0.2 (1/mm) or less.