For the syntesis of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), the two-step method, which consists of the preparation of 3-chloro-2-oxypropyl methacrylate (MACE) by the reaction of epichlorohydrin (ECH) with methacrylic acid (MA) and the followed dehydrochlorination of MACE was investigated. Among the tested catalysts, triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBAC) was most effective and other quarternary ammonium salts, which contain bulky groups, were less effective than TEBAC on the 1 st-step reaction. Tertiary amines, such as triethyl amine or pyridin, were effective catalysts, but they were also less effective than TEBAC. Solvents showed no desirable effect on the 1st-step reaction. The higher the reaction temperature, the more the acid conversion was, but the decrease in double bond was observed at 110°C. The predominant reaction in the 1st-step was affected by the mixing method of reactants. The method dropping the ECH into MA was better than the method dropping the MA into ECH. The yield of distillated MACE was 92.3%. The dehydrochlorination of MACE, the 2nd-step, was investigated by means of “epoxides interchange method”. By using phenyl glycidyl ether as a dehydrochlorinating agent and TEBAC as a catalyst, GMA was obtained in about 74% yield. Without TEBAC the yield decreased to 55%.
The standard carbon black used for the preparation of artificially soiled cloths in the detergency test is an industrial product being sold for other uses, therefore, this has some disadvantages in such as; the change of its quality and the cessation of its production sometimes occuring according to the change of its market requirement. However, the standard carbon black for the artificially soiled cloths requires constant and higher uniformity of the quality. This study was purposed to prepare the suitable carbon black by laboratory method. In the first step the authors, investigated the effects on soiling and detergency of cloths by the following factors of carbon black as a basic study; structure, particle size, specific surface area, oxygen-containing groups on the particle surface, oily matter of carbon black. In order to evaluate the individual effect of these factors authors paid much attention to obtain the carbon black with same quality. As the usual carbon black has different quality authors treated it by suitable method or prepared new carbon black specially in case of need. From these studies the following results were made clear; 1) All of above mentioned factors were influential on the nature of the soiled cloths. 2) Suitable amount of oily matter on the particle surface was necessary factor. Uniformity of particle size and low chain structure of carbon was desirable factors.
Metal salts of new type amphoteric surface active agents as internal antistatic agents were incorporated into polystyrene and ABS resin by extruding and other molding methods. The antistatic property was evaluated by surface resistivity, charge generation, Static Honestometer Test and Dirt Chamber Test. These metal salts had good compatibility with resins and did not bleed out on the surface of the incorporated sheets, and exhibited good antistatic property for polystyrene and ABS resin. The antistatic property of Mg salt was found as superior than others.
The thermal addition of 10-undecenoic acid with formaldehyde in acetic anhydride affords mainly 12-hydroxy-trans-9-dodecenoic acid. The structure of this product was characterized through its oxydation and reduction products.
Hydrocarbons generated in catalytic hydrogenoelysis of fatty ester and fatty alcohol have been previously determined. In this paper, the author reported that the following, compounds as well as hydrocarbons mentioned above, were also detected by means of GLC : a) hydrocarbons having higher carbon number than original fatty compounds. b) olefin and aldehyde which have same carbon number as the original material. c) dialkyl ether.
Monoalkyl phosphates were prepared from various fatty alcohols and pyrophosphoric acid in the benzene solution. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate and monooleyl phosphate showed excellent properties as antistatic agentsfor polyvinyl chloride.