The fat bloom of cocoa type coating made from hydrogenated palm kernel oil was studied by scanning electronmicroscope and differential scanning calorimeter. The coating more easily developed the fat bloom when it was maintained at 20°C, than any other condition. The appearance of the bloom observed by electronmicroscope was different from the bloom of cocoa butter. The melting range of the fat that was scraped off from bloomed surface was narrower than original fat, and content of lauric acid of the scraped fat was higher than the original. The mechanism of the fat bloom was also discussed.
A chicken embryo test is proposed for the biological examination of rancid oil toxicity. The test samples used in this experiment were several different kinds of fresh edible oils and their rancid ones which were prepared as shown in Fig.-1. Ten fertile eggs (6-day old, White Leghone) were used for the toxicological examination of each oil sample. Two-tenth ml of the oil was injected into the yolk sac of the eggs. The injected eggs were successively incubated at 38°C and 60% R.H. The toxicity of the oil was determined by the mortality of chicken embryos three days later. (1) All fresh oils proved nontoxic to the chicken embryos under the experimental condition. The rancid oils, however, showed remarkable toxicity which increased parallel with their rancidity. (2) The dose-response curve and the reproducibility were obtained under the condition used for the toxicological determination of rancid oils. (3) This proposed chicken embryo test was compared with ordinal animal test using mice on the same rancid samples. The data indicated that the both methods showed a similar tendency in the results. The chicken embryo test, however, had an advantage over the mice test that the former test required a less quantity of the sample and was much sensitive with good reproducibility. Therefore, it is considered that this chicken embryo test is suitable for the determination of rancid oil toxicity rather than the chemical assay, since the chemical results do not always correlate to the toxicity.
The oxidation of acrolein was carried out under the presence of di-tert-butylperoxyoxalate (DBPO) in seven kinds of solvents. After the addition of DBPO, the uptake of oxygen was observed without induction period and the absorption rate of oxygen was continued steadily much longer than the case of the oxidation catalysed by metal-salts. Acrylic acid, peracrylic acid and the peroxide complex (1 : 1 adduct from peracrylic acid and acrolein) were formed and the selectivity of acrylic acid reached to 47.0% in benzene, while peracrylic acid and the peroxide complex were considerably stable in the reaction solution (their selectivities were 18.0% and 24.0%, respectively). The polymers formed in the case of the final stage of the reaction by Co (acac) 3 catalyst, were not observed in any solvent used in this investigation.The absorption rates of oxygen in various solvents decreased in the following order : benzene>carbon tetrachloride>n-hexane>cyclohexane>butyric acid>valeric acid>acetic acid
Detergency is usually evaluated by measuring the reflectance of the soiled cloth before and after the washing procedures. However, the detergency determined by the above mentioned method doesnot always correspond to the removability of soil, but is called “apparent detergency” by the authors. In this paper, studies were made on the relation between “apparent detergency” and the removability of the soil component contained in the artificially soiled cloths. 1) Logarithm of “apparent detergency” was prorortianal to soil removal in various washing conditions. 2) Organic components were removed easier than inorganic components. Choresterol stearate was the easiest component to be removed among the organic components tested. Paraffin and squarene were removed in a less degree. 3) Fatty acids and triglycerides were removed in different way with different washing solution. Fatty acids were easily removed in aqueous solution of sodium tripolyphosphate.
Authors prepared three lubricating base oils having different pour points (0°, -5°, -10°C) by dewaxing of solvent refined waxy raffinate, and then three kinds of representative commercial pour point depressants (naphthalene-chlorinated paraffin condensation product, phenol-chlorinated paraffin condensation product and polyalkylmethacrylate) were added to them in the concentration range of 0.10.5wt%. Thereby the authors measured the ordinary pour points, Federal test method (cycle C) pour points and observed the pour point reversions. Variance analysis of experimental values showed that Federal test method pour points depended upon the dewaxing temperatures and kind of additives but not affected by the quantity of additives, while the pour point reversions were influenced by these three factors. Generally, pour point reversions were higher for the samples prepared from base oils of higher pour point.