For the purpose of effective utilization of higher unsaturated fatty acids, epoxidized 2-alkenylimidazolines were prepared. Olive and safflower oil fatty acids of which lower fractions were considerably eliminated by means of rectification were converted into 2-alkenylimidazolines by E. Waldmann's method. These two 2-alkenylimidazolines were epoxidized respectively with 7.5% peracetic acid-acetic acid solution at 30 C. Oxiran oxygen content of epoxidized olive imidazoline was 4.3% (epoxidation degree : 90%) and that of epoxidized safflower imidazoline was 3.5% (epoxidation degree : 46%).
Author could prove that the catalyst species in the hydrogenation by iron pentacarbonyl is a homogeneous one by the, following experimental results that a glycerid and its methylester could be hydrogenated with same rate and selectivity and that the system which contains colloidal iron formed by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in saturated fatty acid ester at 250°C in hydrogen atmosphere displayed no catalytic activity. In view of the fact that monoene was reduced with same initial rate as diene and also the catalyst was decomposed more rapidly in monoene, it seemes reasonable to assume that the π-diene iron tricarbonyl complex is not an essential catalyst type but a stabilized type of catalyst species. In as much as the hydrogen-uptake by diiron enneacarbonyl and triiron dodecacarbonyl began at same temperature as iron pentacarbonyl, the reduction process which proceeds through unstableπ-mono-ene iron tetracarbonyl complex is deniable. Great value in activation energy of about 60 kcal at 180-200°C suggests that the rate determining step in this hydrogenation is thermal- and partial-decomposition of stable iron pentacarbonyl. The hydrogenation is strongly obstructed by addition of pyridine or free fatty acid and only isomerzation is accelerated. In the latter case the catalyst was decomposed into iron soap. Obstruction by hydroxyl group was not so remarkable. Upon discussion of these data, it seemed reasonable to assume that the active catalyst species is a type of Fe (CO)3, which will be then thermally accelerated to takeup hydrogen from proper hydrogen sources, i.e. molecular hydrogen or active methylene group, and acts as iron corbonyl hydrid such as H2Fe (CO)3.
The length of time by which any frying oil may become to show the strong foaming during the deep fat frying is presumed to depend on several factors, principally temperature of frying, surface area of oil exposed to air and degree of contamination of oil by the fried foods. This paper deals factors that affect the rate of oil deterioration during the deep fat frying, such as degree of heating, amount of steam blown into oils, kind of gases passed in oils, kind of metals used as frying pans and so on. To compare the effects of defference in amount of steams blown into oils, 700 gr or 1, 000 gr of soybean oil placed in iron frying pan was heated for 2.5 hrs at 240°C, blowing the steam through a glass plate filter, then the chemical and physical properties of oils thus obtained were measured. The more the steam blown, the more the oil deteriorates. Blowing of air and oxygen into oil affected much the rate of deterioration of oil, while blowing of steam or heating in absence of air seemed to prevent oil deterioration. With regard to the factors resulting from contamination of the oil by the fried soybean curd, “Tofu” didnot affect on the deterioration except the colour. The kind of metals used for vessels such as iron, stainless steel, coppor and aluminium didnot show any significant difference of effect on oil deterioration except the changes in colour and flavor in the case of copper.
The solubilizing activity and detergency of some kinds of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonates have been determined. In case of solubilizing Orange-OT at 25°C, linear type dodecylbenzenesulfonates are superior than tetramer types, except n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate restricted by its poor solubility. In hard water, the solubilizing activity of the sulf onates of both types goes through a maximum at an appropriate hardness range, and then at severe hardness level the solubilizing activity is decreased almost to zero. By the addition of sodium sulfate, their solubilizing activities are increased, and by the substitution of a part of the sulfate with sodium tripolyphosphate the range of maxima is moved to higher hardness regions. In case of dodecyl-6-benzenesulfonate which clearly shows the shift phenomenon, it was found that maxima exist at a range of calcium/tripolyphosphate equivalent ratio of 0.60.7, without any relations to the concentrations of the sulf ovate and phosphate. The detergency, which was determined by soiled glass plate method at 25°C, is also enhanced at appropriate hardness ranges, and by the addition of the phosphate, the enhanced range of the detergency moves toward higher hardness level, or the detergency is not decreased untill higher hardness level.