The influence of cultural conditions, especially C/N ratio of medium, growth temperature, nitrogen source and chain length of hydrocarbons on the amounts of lipids formed from n-paraffin in the my-celium of two strains (IFO 7824 and 7884) of Mortierella isabellina which were found to accumulate large amount of lipids in the mycelium incubated by using glucose as a carbon source was investigated.The mycelium of the strains were observed to be grown well when cultured by using decane as a carbon source. The maximum accumulation of lipids, 0.375g/400 ml medium, containing 5.0ml (3.64 g) of decane at C/N ratio of 24.1 by using NH4NO3 as a nitrogen source when grown at 30°C. In this case, the lipid coefficient which total intracellular lipid weight produced/100 g of decane was obtained 10.3.The fatty acids compositions of neutral and polar lipid fractions fractionated from lipid extracts by silicic acid column chromatography and the lipid compositions of both fractions were determined. The influence of the cultural conditions on these compositions was also investigated.
For determination of low peroxide values (POV) of lipids, the JOCS method was modified by the employment of a potentiometer instead of starch as an indicator. This method required only 0.02 g of lipids to determine POV when POV is higher than 1 meq/kg, and 0.1 g of lipids when that is lower than 1 meq/kg. As it was found that chloroform could be replaced by the Folch solvent (Chloroform : Methanol = 2 : 1) in the determination, the amount of per-oxides of lipids occuring in biological samples was measured with the latter solvent, so that there was no need of solvent removal after extraction. As compared with the thiobarbituric acid test which reads the quantity of malonaldehyde, one of the decomposed products of peroxides, an advantage of the present method is that a small amount of peroxides which are the first products at the initial stage of oxidation of lipids can be determined directly, while the amount of malonaldehyde is less than that of the peroxides at the stage and not always proportional to the degree of oxidation of mother lipids.
The interfacial properties of some amino acids in their aqueous solutions were studied in terms of surface and interfacial tension of the solutions. Dodecane was used as a non-polar oil phase and oleic acid as a polar oil phase at the oil/water interface. Surface and interfacial tension decreased with increas-ing concentration of amino acids. Increasing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chain (Δft) tends to decrease surface and interfacial tension in the same concentration of amino acids. The Δft is an average of differences of standard free energy change on the basis of glycine when amino acid is transfered from organic solvent to water. This is considered that hydrophobic amino acids are difficult to exist in the bulk, because water molecules in the neighborhoods of amino acid side chains form ice-berg structure.Basic amino acids and oleic acid formed salt at the interface and the character of its salt was similar to that of lyotropic mesomorphism. Interfacial tension decreased considerably at dodecane containing oleic acid/basic amino acid solution interface.
Aseries ofβ-glycols such as 1, 3-alkanediols (C8C18), erythro-and threo-2, 4-alkanediols (C3C16), and erythro-and threo-3, 5-, 4, 6-, .5, 7-dodecanediols were prepared and their antifoaming pro-perties for the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as a foaming agent were evaluated by the Ross-Miles foam tester (JIS K 3362) and the dynamic foam meter (JIS K 2518). The results of these experiments were shown in Fig.-1Fig.-15. It was found that the aatifoam-ing properties of the β-glycols were dependent upon their molecular weights, the position and the rotational arrangements of two hydroxyl groups in the molecules. (1) The antifoaming Powers of the β-glycols increased in the order C17=C16>C18=C15=C14>C13>C12>C11=C10=C9=C8. (2) The antifoaming powers of dodecanediols were greater when two hydroxyl groups were located near the center of an alkyl chain (Fig.-18). (3) Threo isomers showed better antifoaming Properties than those of erythro isomers (Fig.-17 and Fig.-18).
Investigations on the direct esterification of oleic acid and equimolecular or a large excess of glycerol were carried out under the conditions of reaction temperatures at 125280°C, for 36h in the absence of a catalyst. Reaction products were determined by the TLS. 1) The optimum preparative conditions for maximum monooleoylglycerol were given and under these, quantitative results of the product were obtained as follows : Molar ratio of oleic acid and glycerol, 1 : 5, Reaction temperature and time, 250°C, 3h, Weight ratio of component, monooleoylglycerol (MO) 78% (1-MO 52%, 2-MO 26%), dioleoylglycerol (DO) 21% (1, 3-DO 1.3%, 1, 2-DO 8%), trioleoylglycerol and oleic acid, trace. 2) It was recognized that reactioas of oleic acid (O) with glycerol (G) could be separated into three types : (a) Esterification (molar ratio of O/G=1/1, at 125200°C) (b) Reactions among acylglycerols formed by esterification (O/G=1/1, approximately at 250°C) (c) Glycerolysis (O/G=1/3, 1/5, approximately at 250°C)
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride was treated with five alcohols (C8C16) to give new five chelating agents, DTPA-dialkyl esters. The equivalent reaction between the chelating agents and several metal ions, gave the corresponding 1 : 1 metal.chelates in good yields. These metal chelates and sodium salts of the chelating agents were found to be more soluble in organic solvents than those of DTPA-monoalkyl esters which have been reported in previous paper, and to have good surface-active properties, especially dispersing power.
The removal of some sodium salts of fatty acids in aqueous solutions was studied by reverse osmosis process (batch system) using cellulose acetate membranes. The results were as follows : When the concentration of sodium salts of fatty acids is 100 mg/l, the rejection showed the low values when the carbon number of alkyl groups on the sodium salts of fatty acids was C2 to C8, and when the carbon number of alkyl groups increases to C10C18 the rejection tends to be higher. The difference in water permeability was little between C2 to C18 sodium salts of fatty acids. The rejection increased as the surface tension of sodium salts of fatty acids became lower.
The physico-chemical property and performance of detergent containing sodium poly (oxyethylene) alkyl ether carboxylate as a surface active agent was studied in terms of the detergent which was composed without sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). Soap (sodium oleate : sodium stearate : sodium palmitate= 3 : 1 : 1), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as the other surface active agent to comparison. The detergents were examined for surface tension, foam performance and foam stability, and detergency. As a result, it was suggested that sodium poly (oxyethylene) alkyl ether car-boxylate was more effective as a surface active agent for a detergent which was composed without STPP.