For the analysis of aromatic surfactants by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the absorption spectra of various surfactants, i.e., sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, alkyl pyridinium halides, alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides, POE alkyl phenols and formaldehyde condensates of naphthalene sulfonate, have been measured. These surfactants exhibited the characteristic absorption bands and λmax which were relatively in dependent of chain length of alkyl group, kind of halide and moles of ethylene oxide, and thus it was recognized that UV absorption spectra were useful in the identification and qualitative analysis of aromatic surfactants. The λmax (mμ) of surfactants were determined as follows : sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate : 261, alkyl pyridinium halide : 259.5, alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride : 263, POE alkyl phenol 277, formaldehyde condensate of naphthalene sulf ovate : 289290, 332. At the λmax existence of a straight linear relationship between extinction and concentration (%) was confirmed.
I. Broiled Whole Sea Bream Oil. The oil was obtained from the red porgy, Pagrosumus major T., as a by-product in the broiled whole sea bream manufacturing industry of the Inland Sea. The oil was yellowish red having a fishy smell. The sample investigated gave the following characteristics d1540.9252, n20D1.4767, A.V. 6.35, S.V. 189.2, I.V. (Wijs) 164.4, unsaponifiable matter 1.43%. The mixed acids from the oil had the following properties : Yield% N.V. I.V mp (°C) Color Mixed acids 93.25 197.3 171.1 …… Yellowish brown Unsaponifiable matter 1.14 ……106.7 138142 Yellowish white The mixed fatty acids were separated into solid and liquid acids by the lead-salt alcohol method, with yields of 26.27% for the solid and 73.73% for the liquid, giving the following characteristics : Solid acids Liquid acids N.V. 207.6 193.6 I.V. 8.5 226.3 mp (°C) 48.851.5 …… Color Yellowish white Dark red The composition of the fatty acid was investigated and recognized that the solid acids consist exclusively of palmitic acid, and additional C12, C14, C18, C20, C22, and C24 saturated fatty acids. The liquid acids chiefly consisted of C16, F1 and additional C10 C12, and C14 F1 acids ; C18 F1, F2, F3; C2020 and C22 F1, F2, F3, and higher unsaturated acids. Unsaponifiable matters had the I.V. 106.7, and mp 138142 °C. II. Dried Sprat Oil. The oil was obtained from the sprat, Engraulis Japonica T., as a by-product in the boiling and drying operations of the special manufacturing of the fish. The crude oil had the following characteristics : A.V. I.V. Unsaponifiable matters % I. (Dried for 3 months) 11.8 106.0 5.28 II. (Dried for 6 months) 16.0 106.9 11.03 The mixed acids from the oil had the following characteristics : Unsaponifiable matters NV. I.V. Color I.V. Color I 208.7 112.4 Yellowish 117.3 Pale yellow II 212.4 113.3 Brown 102.2 Yellow The solid and liquid acids separated from the mixed fatty acids had the following characteristics : I II Solid acids Liquid acids Solid acids Liquid acids Yield % 52.42 47.58 56.28 43.72 It was found that the solid fatty acids consist chiefly of palmitic acid and small quantities of C12, C14, C18, C20, acids appeared to be present, and that the liquid acids consist chiefly of zomaric acid, with small quantities of C12, C14, C16, F1; C18, F1, F2, F3; C20, C22, F1, F2, F3 and higher unsaturated acids. Unsaponifiable matters had the following properties : I II I.V. 117.3 102.2 mp (°C) 116121 117125 Color Pale Yellow Yellow
It is reported that the ammonolsis rate of aliphatic acid esters is very slow than that of aliphatic acids. Authors carried out experiments on amidation of methylated aliphatic acid in the flow reactor system, semi-batch reactor system and in the batch reactor system. As a result, it was found a very interesting phenomenon at the semi-batch system mentioned above. Starting from the materials, using palmitic acid methylate, azelaic acid dimethylate, azelaic acid semi-methylate and adipic acid dimethylate, these were charged into the heated reactor respectively, and ammonia was blown into the reactor at a constant velocity. In these reactions, when the same or different sort of aliphatic acid was added, it was found that the ammonolysis rate of these esters could be very fast and that the reaction rate of aliphatic acids was later than that of those esters. This paper reports on the effect of added aliphatic acids in the amidation of methylated fatty acid.
Reactions of urea adduct formation were performed with linseed, safflower and rice bran fatty acids by using 49% urea solutions the pH of which were previously adjusted at 3.5. Non adduct fatty acids containing a lesser amount of saturated acids were obtained without solvent washing of adducts. Increase in the urea/fatty acid ratio, decreased the yields of non adduct fatty acids, and their iodine value became higher, but the maximum iodine value was limited for the reason that the yield of the non adduct fatty acids became zero. By using the method, linoleic acid of 85.9% purity was obtained from safflower fatty acid in a 52.6% yield without solvent washing process and it was 81.5% yield with solvent washing. Furthermore, the urea addition reaction was accelerated to be completed within 1.5 minutes by using a high shear agitator. Authors could have a prospect to perform the reaction continuously on a commercial scale without using any solvent.
Quaternary ammonium salts containing various anion : F-, CI-, Br-, I-, 1/2 SO4--, NO3-, H2PO4-, ClO4-, CH3COO-, CCl3COO-, C11H23COO-, 1/2 (COO-)2, _??_-COO- and CH3-_??_SO3- were obtained by the reaction of the corresponding amine salts with ethylene oxide. Their properties of surface tention, wettability, antistatic effect and the absorption by cotton, rayon, nylon, orlon, tetoron and wool were tested. By arranging the quaternary ammonium salts of hydrogen halide in the order of increase in absorption, the following result was obtained ; F-, Cl-, Br-, and I- in the order of magnitude of the power. And this ordering was commonly adapted to that of hygroscopic degree and wettability. This ordering supports Sexsmith's absorption mechanism (J. Colloid Science, 14, 598 (1959)) of cationic surfactants by cellulosic materials.
In the previous report, the effects on blending polyoxyethylene mono-caprates were studied. According to the result from measuring cloud points, foaming properties and CMC of the purified samples and of their mixtures, it was shown that the variations of additive oxyethylene mole distribution had no influence on the results of blending, providing the samples being purified and the distribution range of oxyethylene mole numbers being limited. In this paper, the effects on blending distilled polyoxyethylene lauryl ethers being varied merely for the additive oxyethylene molenumbers and on blending distilled polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers being varied merely for the alkyl chain length were investigated as well the former case. It was also observed that the mole distribution of oxyethylene mole numbers and the distribution of alkyl chain length had no influence on the results of blending within the limit of the experiments, except in some range of the cloud points.