Since the neutrino was introduced by Pauli in 1933 to filful the energy-mementum conservation in the neuclear β-decay, a finite mass of the neutrino plays an important role in elementary-particle physics and cosmology. The Langmuir-Blodgett film is expected to be an excellent 3H-source for the measurement of the electron anti-neutrino mass because it is homogeneous in the lateral directions and uniform in thickness. In this review, the preparation of a high radioactive, uniform, and stable LB film of Cd-3H -arachidate was introduced as a tritium source for the measurement of the electron anti-neutrino mass;a new method was also presented for preparing a LB film of 109Cd-arachidate as a standard source for the measurement. The method requires an extremely small amount of substrate solution.
The Michael addition of nitroalkanes with methyl acrylate catalyzed by tertiary-phosphine such as tributylphosphine was studied so as to determine optimum reaction condition. The Michael reaction of nitropropane with methyl acrylate catalyzed by tributylphosphine in benzene gave methyl 4-nitrohexanoate (2 a) in 80 % yield. In the reaction of 1-nitroalkane (1) with methyl acrylate, methyl4-nitroalkanoates(2b)(2g)were obtained in 7282% yields. Methy 4-nitroalkanoates(2d)(2g)were made to undergo an electrochemical oxidative Nef reactions to give methyl 4-oxoalkanoates(4d)(4f)and methyl 6-formyl-4-oxohexanoate(6). These compounds were converted to γ-lactones(5).γ-Jasmolactone(8)was prepared from(6).
Thermal oxidation, heat, oxidation and reagents stability was examined as an index of fatty acid stability. Color determination and chemical test to indicate values such as those of anisidine and peroxide are usually conducted according to conventional methods for stability determination. In particular, color determination is usually done by methods such as the APHA and Gardner color methods. Various color evaluation for determination of the thermal oxidation stability of fatty acids were studied and the results compared. Since the APHA and Gardner color methods of ten gives results that vary according to the person and place for conducting the experiments, attention in the present study was focused on spectrophotometric method to determine the stability of fatty acid. The photometric index (P.I.) calculated by the following equation was found useful for the color determination of fatty acids. PI=100 log 100/A where, A=0.0002 T400*+0.0093 T440+0.0842 T490+0.3491 T530+0.4029 T550+0.1543 T620 *T400 : Transmittance at 400 nm A good relationship was also noted between the PI and APHA standards. That is PI × 100 was identical with the color number of APHA standard solution.
Homogeneous oligo(oxyethylene)n-dodecyl ethers(C12Em, m=28)and higher alkanoic acids(C8C18)were examined as carriers for the competitive passive transport of alkali(Li+, Na+, and K+)and alkaline earth metal(Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+)cations through a chloroform membrane. 1) The linear polyethers, combined with an alkanoic acid, effectively mediated cation-transport similarly to cooperative carriers composed of crown ether and alkanoic acid as reported previouslyl4)16). 2) 2-Bromoalkanoic acids (BAA) were superior to those unsubstituted as co-carriers in both transport efficiency and cation-selectivity for two competitive systems (Table-1 and -2). 3) For a monovalent cations system, the polyethers combined with BAA (C12Em-BAA) had essentially the same selectivity (K+>Na+>>Li+). Their transport efficiency increased with m (Fig.-3). 4) The selectivity of divalent cations except Mg2+ was found to depended on m of C12Em-BAA, and plots of efficiency vs. m for Ca2+ and Ba2+ gave maxima at m=5 and m=6, respectively (Fig.-5). 5) The effect of the acyl chain length of BAA on the transport ability of these cooperative carriers was also examined (Fig.-4 and -6).
Amphiphilic aminimides (2) possessing two hydroxyl groups and an L-alanine residue were prepared by the reaction of N-alkanoyl-L-alanine methyl esters (1) with N, N-dimethylhydra zine and glycidol. 18-Crown-6 derivatives (3) having an L-alanine residue and a aminimide group were prepared by the reaction between (2) and pentaethylene glycol ditosylate in THF in the presence of NaH (Scheme-1 ). Some aqueous solution properties of (2) and (3), complexing stability constants (log K'1) for (3) with K+ ion, and liquid membrane transport of N-benzoylamino acid anions mediated by (3) were examined. All of the surface-active compounds prepared in this investigation were highly soluble in water (cloud point > 100°C). In spite of lower complexing stability constants for (3 a) with K+ ion, the transport efficiency of (3 a) for N-benzoylglycine, -alanine, and-sarcosine were larger than those of the reference compounds without L-alanine residue (5 a), (6), and(7). The result indicates that the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the carrier and substrate can be an important factor to control the transport of the amino acid anions.
Microbial cell-bound lipases were used as catalysts for ester exchange between fats and fatty acids in an organic solvent to modify the properties of fats and oils. A yeast (Saccharomycopsis lipolytica) and an unknown bacterium were selected to test catalytic activities. The cells were cultured in optimized media, washed with 0.85% NaCl and an organic solvent and then dried to prepare cell powder. We determined the amount of added fatty acid incorporated into the triglyceride fraction. Among the fatty acids examined, the yeast cells catalyzed most quickly the incorporation of oleic acid, while the bacterium cells showed specificity for cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid). The latter cells showed very weak activity toward oleic acid (11% the activity toward palmitoleic acid). The yeast cells catalyzed the reaction best at pH 8.0 and 35°C. The water content of the reaction mixture was an important factor affecting the ester exchange. The optimum concentrations were 1.0 and 0.25%(wt/wt) for the yeast and bacterium cells, respectively.
To study the surface adsorption of cationic surfactants on hydrophilic polymer latices, ζ-potentials of styrene/acrylamide [P (St/AAm) ] copolymer latices were measured in aqueous solutions of alkylpyridinium bromide (abbr. APB, CnH2n+1NC5H5Br;n=12: DPB, n=14: TPB, n=16: HPB). The thickness Δ of the AAm layer on the P(St/AAm) latex surface determined by viscosity and the distance t from the Stern layer to the slipping plane in the electirical double layer on the latex surface increased with AAm the fraction. It thus appears that the hydration layer is present on the surface of P(St/AAm) latices. The sign of the ζ-potential of the latex changed from negative to positive with increasing concentration of surfactant and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on latices decreased with increasing the thickness of PAAm layer. The surfactant adsorption increased with the hydrocarbon chain length of APB in the order, HBP>TPB >DPB. These results can be explained on the basis of electrostatic attractive force and hydrophobic interaction. The negative value of free energy of adsorption ΔG for surfactant on a latex decreased with increasing thickness of the PAAm layer and increased with chain length of the surfactant. The large positive value of entropy of adsorption ΔS indicates the importance of entropic interactions and the formation of hydrophobic bonds as driving forces for adsorption of the surfactant on a letex surface. It is concluded that the adsorbability of a surfactant onto P(St/AAm) latices is less than that on the PS latex, since hydrophilic poly-AAm layer is present on the surface of P(St/AAm) latices.
The neutral lipid containing γ-1inolenic acid was separated by supercritical fluid chromatography(SFC). By adding hexane or methanol to supercritical carbon dioxide, the separation was more rapid and effective. The fatty acid composition of each fractionated peak was studied. In the initial elution part of the fraction of triglyceride, γ-1inolenic acid was present by 2 to 5 times as much as that in the original neutral lipid.