The production of oilseed meals is increasing in the world. However their utilization for food is very few and only 10% soy bean meal is used for food processing in Japan. Soy protein products are classified into powder, texture and fiber type and a lot of fuctional properties are revealed according to their types. So, the products are being used as improver of processed food such as meat and fish paste products, delicatessen, etc. In addition, recently 100of chemical score and cholesterol lowering effect for soy protein has been reported and indicated that it is an excellent nutritional protein source for human. Due to the above, new style food products which soy protein products are subjective have been developing for consumer market. In spite of many researchers' efforts, other oilseed proteins have not yet been resolved their individual problems, antinutrients, toxins, color, flavor, etc. and utilization for food materials is limited.
Major glycerolipid classes such as triacylglycerol (TG), monoglycosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), diglycosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanol-amine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were isolated from seeds, leaves and the roots of Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), and their molecular species of 1, 2-diacylglycerol residues were investigated. Not only the relative proportions but also molecular species compositions of these glycerolipids differed among the organs. However, the major molecular species, based on the degree of unsaturation of the component 1, 2-diacylglycerol residues, were generally dienoic to pentaenoic types (i.e. 16 : 0-18 : 2, 16 : 0-18 : 3, 18 : 2-18 : 2, and 18 : 2-18 : 3) in TG, PC and PE, dienoic and trienoic in PI, and hexaenoic (i.e. 18 : 3-18 3) in MGDG and DGDG. Thus, the degree of unsaturation in the DG species of Adzuki glycerolipids was moderate for TG, PC and PE, lower for PI, and higher for MGDG and DGDG.
The effect of electrolyte concentration on particle attachment and detachment under gravity was studied experimentally using an immersed system consisting of spherical polyethylene particles and a quartz plate. Experimental data were interpreted in terms of electrostatic and dispersive van dar Waals interactions on the basis of the heterocoagulation theory. The addition of potassium chloride to a suspension in a quartz cell at constant pH caused increase in the number of particles attached to the cell wall and decrease in the rate of particle detachment from the wall. These results are due to change in the depth of the secondary minimum of potential energy curves.
Racemic and optically active amphoteric surfactants, N-substituted amino acids and amino sulfates derivatives were prepared to determine relationship of physico-chemical relations of chiral isomers with chemical structures among chiral isomers. Amphoterics possess a 1-phenylethyl group as the hydrophobic chiral center. The racemates showed no difference with optically active isomers with respect to capacity for lowering surface tension and cmc. The influence of the long alkyl chain length of the hydrophobic group on cmc was essentially the same as that of other types of surfactants governed by Traube's rule, while the influence of chain length between the two hydrophilic groups could not be determined exactly. The pH of the solution affected the solubility of amphoterics and an aqueous solution of the amino acid derivative surfactants became turbid below pH 4 in acidic condition. The amphoterics were also tested for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. The hydrophobic long alkyl group significantly influenced antimicrobial activity more than the chiral isomerism. N-Dodecylated homologues were confirmed to be more antimicrobial than N-decylated homologues.
A three-phase region of the W+D' +Om type appeared in a water/nonionic surfactant/middle- or long-chain alcohol system, in which W was an excess water phase and Om, a nonaqueous reversed micellar solution phase. The D' phase (surfactant phase), also called an anomalous or L3 phase, differed from the other surfactant phase, D, which was usually observed in water/nonionic surfactant/hydrocarbon systems. In many linear-chain alcohol systems, the D' phase was observed over a wide range of water/alcohol ratios, and a liquid crystal of lamellar type was present below the three-phase temperature. When branched alcohol was used, phase behavior changed and became similar to a three-phase region of the W+D+O type as in ordinary hydrocarbon systems. The solubilizing capacity of the D' phase was much larger than that of the D' phase. The appearance of D or D' phases was dependent of the nature of the alcohol and surfactant.
The components and molecular species of sphingolipids from maize organs (seeds, leaves, roots, stems, pollen and styles) were investigated. The major sphingolipid classes were commonly cerebrosides and ceramides, the former being predominant except in the case of seeds. The representative molecular species of cerebrosides were found to be 1-O-glucosyl-N-2'hydroxyarachidoyl-sphingadienine, 1-O-glucosyl-N-2'-hydroxylignoceroyl-4-hydroxysphingenine, 1-O-glucosyl-N-2'-hydroxybehenoyl-4-hydroxysphingenine and the like. Although cerebroside composition was similar for leaves and stems, maize cerebrosides generally showed characteristic patterns in molecular species compositions among the organs. Pollen cerebroside in particular was unusual; the species having sphingadienine and 2-hydroxyarachidic acid constituted half the total. The predominant sphingoid component in their crude ceramide fractions from the maize organs was usually 4-hydroxysphinganine, whereas the principal fatty acid component was 2-hydroxylignoceric acid, but was 2-hydroxyarachidic acid for pollen.