Each of safflower oil, its fatty acids, and their methyl esters was heated at 140180°C using 0.52.0 wt% of iodine as a catalyst. It was observed that the increase of the amount of iodine and/or elevation of reaction temperature are effective to the production of conj. diene. Conj, triene and octadecenoic acid (s) are found to be formed. The Effectiveness of iodine as a conjugation catalyst was examined by comparing the present results with those in the references.
Telomerizations of acrylamide (AAm) or acrylic acid (AAc) were carried out using 1-dodecanethiol (LsH) or 2-propanol (iPa) as a telogen and d'-azobis- (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator to obtain the corresponding LsH-AAm telomers (LsCONH2 series), LsH-AAc telomers (LsCOOH series), iPa-AAm telomers (iPa-CONH2 series), or iPa-AAc telomers (iPa-COOH series). (Tables-1, 2, and 4). LsCONH2 series were further treated with alkaline solutions to obtain the corresponding partially saponified ones (LsCONH2-H series). (Table-3). These reactions proceeded smoothly, and the chemical structures of these telomers were determined by elementary analyses and IR spectra. (Table-6). In the LsCONH2 series (Ls 5.2 CONH2Ls 26.4 CONH2) and the LsCOOH series (Ls 7.9 COOHLs 21.9 COOH) cmcs were related with the degrees of polymerization (n) by log cmc=0.024 n-2.528, and log cmc=0.061 n-2.877, respectively. (Table-7), The Ca2+ sequestration capacities of these samples had tendencies contrary to those of the Cu2+ masking capacities or CaCO3 dispersion capacities. The LsCONH2+ series showed excellent capacities for Ca2+ sequestration. (Table-7). The addition of Ca2+ to the detergent solution containing Ls 16.4CONH2 or Ls 23.3 CONH2 23.5 H lowered the surface tension (γ), and increased the solubility of Orange OT. (Table-8).
The adsorption equilibrium of water soluble fatty acids on the surface modified and unmodified active carbon in aqueous solution was examined. An active carbon “Pittsburgh active carbon (Calgon Co.)” was used as an adsorbent, and these surfaces were modified by treatment of various oxidants such as nitric acid, hydrochloric-hydrofluoric acid, air, oxygen, and ozone. Water soluble fatty acid used in this experiment were low and middle fatty acids from acetic acid (C2) to nonanoic acid (C9). The adsorption isotherms were conformed to Freundlich equation. Traube's rule was applicable to the adsorption of fatty acids on unmodified active carbon. The adsorption capacity increased with a decrease in the solubilities. On the other hand, on the surface modified active carbon by nitric acid the adsorption capacity of fatty acids decreased with an increase in the concentration of nitric acid (1 N, 4 N, and 13.2 N). However, with the active carbon modified by 13.2 N nitric acid Traube's rule was applicable to the adsorption of the middle fatty acids except lower fatty acids. The adsorption capacity of nonanoic acid (C9) on active carbon modified by various oxidants decreased in the following order HCl-HF>Unmodified >1 N HNO3>O2>O3 4 N HNO3 13.2 N HNO3>Air It is considered that the adsorption capacity relates to the surface oxides of active carbon.
The physico chemical properties of a detergent (Sodiumdodecylsulfate, 20%, builder 20%, sodium silicate, 5%, carboxymethyl-cellulose, 1%, and sodium sulfate, 54%, ) were studied to decrease sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in the detergents. Builders were examined for binary systems consisting of STPP and Zeolite in the various ratios. In this study, we used synthetic Zeolite being prepared from sodium aluminate and sodium silicate by the water phase method. The rate of calcium ion exchange was measured by a ionic-electrode method, and was also examined with calcium ionic sequestration in the binary systems of STPP/Zeolite. The detergents were also examined for pH, surface tension, foam performance, and detergency. As a result, it was found that the binary components of STPP and Zeolite behaved more effectively as detergent builder in the formula.
The syntheses of sex pheromones (trans-11-tetradecen-1-ol , trans-7-dodecenyl acetate , trans-9-dodecenyl acetate , trans-11-tetradecenyl acetate , and trans-11-tetradecenal ) secreted by Lepidoptera of female insects have been examined systematically by the standard methods using general reagents (Fig.-1). Dehydrogenation of 1, 7-heptanediol , 1, 9-nonanediol , 1, 11-undecanediol  led to 7-hydroxyheptanal , 9-hydroxynonanal , 11-hydroxyundecanal  respectively (Table-2). 12-Hydroxy-trans-5-dodecen-4-one  was derived from  by the condensation with methyl propyl ketone in the presence of the base, and also 12-hydroxy-trans-5-dodecen-2-one  and 14-Hydroxy-trans-5-tetradecen-2-one  derived from  and  with acetone respectively. trans-7-dodecen-1-ol , trans-9-dodecen-1-ol  and  were prepared by Wolff-Kishner reduction of , and  followed by esterification of . And also,  was easily derived from  by dehydrogenation. Thus sex pheromones  were synthesized by the standard method.
The ternary phase diagram for purified Aerosol OT (AOT) /water/benzene system has been studied at 25 and 50°C. Aqueous micellar solution phase (Wm), lamellar liquid crystalline phase and nonaqueous reversed micellar solution phase (Om) can solubilize a large amount of oil or water respectively at 50°C but small at 25°C. This marked change occured discontinuously around at 40°C in benzene system. HLB of AOT is almost unchanged with temperature, but becomes lipophilic with increasing the water/AOT ratio. On the other hand, in the presence of added salt (NaCl), Wm+excess oil phase exists at higher temperature, and Om+excess water phase exist at lower temperature. At an optimum temperature, brine containing 0.5 wt% of NaCl and 2, 2, 4-trimethyl pentane can dissolve each other in arbitrary ratios with only 3.5 wt%/system of AOT. In this case, AOT becomes relatively hydrophilic with increasing temperature.
Mixtures of methyl oleate and iodine were heated in sealed tubes at 200. The rate equation of geometrical isomerization was derived by assuming that the reaction rate is first order with respect to methyl oleate, according to ref. 1. It was found that the observed values of trans isomer contents in the reaction products does not satisfy the rate equation.