The interfacial tension at an oil/water interface was measured at 25°C, using various glycerides and fatty acids in n-decane as the oil phase. Among the laurins and lauric acid, 1-monolaurin was most effective in lowering the interfacial tension from 52 mN·m-1 to 5 mN·m-1 while 1, 2-dilaurin, 1, 3-dilaurin, trilaurin and lauric acid lowered it to 25 mN·m-1, 29 mN·m-1, 36 mN·m-1, and 30 mN·m-1, respectively. This result can be explained as follows : the effects of glycerides to lower the interfacial tension become stronger with increasing number of free OH groups. The OH group in the a-position of a glyceride is more effective than that in the β-position. When 6 × 10-3 M SDS was added to the water phase, 1-monolaurin and lauric acid in n-decane interacted with it at the n-decane/water interface, causing the interfacial tension to drop to less than 1 mN·m-1 and producing the spontaneous emulsification at the interface.
Vitamin E has long been regarded as an antioxidant preventing lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. The α-tocopherol content in the heart, lung, and spleen was higher than in the liver, kidney, testes, and brain. The α-tocopherol in these tissues of mouse administrated α-tocopherol orally increased about 1.2 to 4.1-fold by weight except for the brain. The α-tocopherol content in brain did not changed. The lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+-ascorbic acid, cumene hydroperoxide, or t-butyl hydroperoxide was inhibited more in the liver homogenate obtained from α-tocopherol-treated mouse, than in the liver homogenate from the control mouse. This suggests that the oral administration of α-tocopherol enhances the content of α-tocopherol in various tissues of mouse and supplementary α-tocopherol effectively prevents lipid peroxidation of the tissues in biological systems.
Poly [(sodium acrylate) -co- (vinyl alcohol)] P (A-VA), poly [(sodium acrylate) -co- (methyl vinyl ether)] P (A-MVE), polyL (sodium 2-hydroxyacrylate) -co- (sodium acrylate) P (HA-A), poly [(disodium maleate) -alt- (vinyl alcohol) P (Ma-VA), poly (disodium fumarate) -alt- (vinyl alcohol)] P (F-VA) were prepared, and their building performances in detergents were examined. Their sequestering power for Ca2+ and dispersing power MnO2 were determined and compared with the corresponding properties of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and disodium 3-oxapentandioate (ODA). The biodegradability of the oligomers was also studied under aerobic conditions. These oligomers showed better detergency building performances than those of ODA, and some of them were superior to those of STPP. Oligomeric P (A-VA) prepared by UV polymerization showed the best building performances in detergent systems and biodegradability tested in this report. The introduction of hydroxyl groups and ether groups to poly (sodium acrylate) promoted their detergency power and biodegradability.
The synergistic antioxidant effects of the fatty acid esters of polyglycerol, propylene glycol and sorbitan with tocopherol (Toc) on lard and palm oil were investigated by the oven and AOM tests. The same tests were also carried out on lecithin. 1) In the oven test, fatty acid esters of polyglycerol and sorbitan showed slight antioxidant effects on lard, but the fatty acid ester of propylene glycol had hardly any effect. All the esters slightly enhanced the antioxidant effects of Toc on lard. No effects were observed on palm oil. 2) In the AOM test, the esters had no antioxidant effects on lard, and did not influence those of Toc. 3) In the oven test, lecithin clearly had antioxidant effect on lard and palm oil, and synergistic cally enhanced the antioxidant effects of Toc on lard. The synergistic effects became more enhanced by the addition of L-ascorbic acid to lecithin, but not so by that of citric acid. No synergistic effects of lecithin with Toc could be observed on palm oil. 4) In the AOM test on lard in which the addition of lecithin was 0.05% or less, the antioxidant effect of lecithin was slight, but its synergistic effects on lard in the presence of Toc were clearly evident. Tests with lecithin levels exceeding 0.05% could not be carried out owing to bubbling of the sample by aeration. 5) In all tests on lecithin, carbonyl value of the samples increased with the amount of peroxide, whether lecithin was added or not.
1H-and 13C-NMR spectroscopy of the sterols isolated from seeds of squash (Cucurbita maxima) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) has demonstrated the occurrence of chondrillasterol (24 β-epimer) together with spinasterol (24 α-epimer).