The so-called micronekton is an intermediate group between the nekton and the plankton from the view-points of swimming ability as well as of its body size. Most of the micronektonic fishes have been known to undertake diurnal vertical migration and dwell in the meso- and bathypelagic zones of ocean. Fifteen species belonging to four families, Gonostomatidae (A), Sternoptychidae (B), Chauliodontidae (C) and Myctophidae (D), were collected from the surface to about 2000m depths in Sagami and Suruga Bays by ORI-plankton net and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl at night. The lipid contents of the micronektonic fishes on the wet weight basis were 2.1% to 6.0% in A, 1.4% in B, 2.4% in C, and 2.0% to 11.9% in D. The wax esters in their lipids were 13.0% to 69.8% in Gonostomatinae (sub-family of A) and over 50% in most of the genus Cyclothone, 15.3% and 6.1% in Maurolicinae (sub-family of A), 4.2% in B, 7.2% in C, and 1.7% to 67.1% in D, As the representative example of micronektonic fish, Cyclothone atraria was chosen and its various tissue lipids were analyzed. The fat-filled swim-bladder contained the highest amounts of lipids (52.1%), in which 78.3% were the wax esters. The wax esters consist mainly of C30 to C44 with even carbon chain-lengths. The major esters are C34, C36, C38, C40 and C42, and also a trace amounts of odd numbered esters exist. The acid moiety of wax esters is dominantly monoenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acid, while the alcohol moiety contains mainly C16 : 0, C18 : 1, C20 : 1 and C22 : 1, as much as 80% in the sum of four components. Comparing the wax ester distribution of micronektonic fish with that of mullet roe, the former ranges rather longer esters because of major moiety of longer chain alcohols in its esters. Although the relation between the micronektonic fishes and their wax ester contents in the lipids has not been fully understood yet, the bathypelagic nonmigrants, such as the genus Cyclothone, contain larger quantities of wax esters than the surface and midwater migrants which contain less than 20% and contain a few per cent in most of them.
Following to the previous studies on micronektonic fishes in Sagami and Suruga Bays, five species of micronektonic shrimps, Acanthephyra quadrispinosa (A), Sergestes prehensilis (B), Sergestes lucens (C), Gennadas sp. (D) and Bentheogennema borealis (E), belonging to the order Decapoda were investigated. Most of them were not previously analyzed. Four species except for C show brilliant-reddish-natural carapace color. They live in the meso- and bathypelagic zones and undertake diel vertical migration as the micronektonic fishes do. These specimens were collected from surface to about 2000m depths in Sagami and Suruga Bays by ORI-plankton net and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl at night. The lipid contents of the micronektonic shrimps on the wet weight basis were 1.7% in C, the least value of all, and about a few per cent in A and B, and over 10% in D and E. Their lipids had 17.9% wax esters in C, around 30% in A and B, and more than 60% in D and E. As the representative examples of micronektonic shrimps, A and E were chosen and their viscera, muscle and carapace lipids were analyzed. The viscera contained the highest amounts of lipids (32.0% in A and 61.2% in E), however, the wax ester contents were almost equal even in the different tissue lipids of same specy. The wax esters cover the range from C30 to C46 with exceptional C which has rather shorter range. The major esters are C34, C36, C38, C40, C42, and C44, and also a trace amounts of odd numbered esters exist. Since the acid moiety of wax esters is dominantly monoenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and the alcohol moiety consists mainly of C16 : 0, C20 : 1 and C22 : 1, the combined wax esters range rathers longer esters. The fatty acid composition of triglycerides shows less highly unsaturated fatty acids, while that of free fatty acids reveals rather larger amounts of them, and fur thermore that of phospholipids contains the largest amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (4749%). Finally the importance of such studies on the micronekton was discussed and emphasized from the stand-points of food hygiene as well as of exploitation of marine resources, because the micronektonic fishes and shrimps rich in the wax esters would be mixed in the capture as the fishing grounds extend from horizontal to vertical directions.
Dihydrocarvyl acetate  and neo-dihydrocarvyl acetate  were oxidized with selenium dioxide in aqueous ethanol at refluxing. In each case, 8 (10) -p-menthene-2-acetoxy-9-al, -9-ol, cis- and trans-8-p-menthene-2-acetoxy-4-ols were obtained. The conformations of these compounds were assigned as shown in Fig.-3 and 5 on the basis of the chemical evidence, IR and NMR data. In studies of the mechanism of allylic oxidation of olefins with selenium dioxide, Schaefer, Tracktenberg and Bhalerao have shown that at the first step of the oxidation, protonated selenium dioxide or its hydrate attacks a double bond as forming a allylic selenite ester and the second the solvolysis of this ester is followed. In the oxidation of  the allylic selenite ester [A] and [B] were produced and then the solvolysis of these esters gave -9-ol [1d] and -4-ols ([1a], [1c]) respectively. In the solvolysis step of [B] there was no steric hindrance in each case of the cis-attack and trans attack of the water molecule to equatorial acetoxy group, so that it was expected that the formation of [1a] was the same preference to that of [1c]. As shown in Table-1, the ratio of the yields of [1a] and [1c] was about 1 : 1. In the solvolysis step of [C] in Fig.-5, the trans-attack of the water molecule to axial acetoxy group would be preferable to the alternative cis-attack, since the cis-attack produces a 1, 3-diaxial interaction between the acetoxy group and the hydroxy group. In agreement with this, the trans-2, 4-diol monoacetate [2c] was favored over cis-epimer [2a] by fourfold.
The biodegradability of some anionic surfactants in the river die-away test was studied. The biodegradability was evaluated by the methylene blue activity and total organic carbon (TOC). Sodium α-olefin sulfonate (AOS), sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium polyoxyethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether sulfate (DES), sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium branched alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS) and sodium stearate (Soap) were used as test material in this study. It was observed that these surfactants, except ABS, were biodegraded intoneinorganic substances in this experimental period. The relative biodegradation rate, estimated by methylene blue activity was SDS_??_DES>AOS>LAS>>ABS, and estimated by TOC was Soap_??_SDS_??_AOS>DES>LAS>>ABS. The methylene blue activity was disappeared in shorter period than TOC.
This report relates to the detergency building action of organic acids containing ether linkages. The authors synthesized two series of oxamonobasic acids, i.e. alkyloxyacetic acids and 3-alkyloxypropionic acids, two kinds of oxatribasic acids, i.e. 2-oxapentane-1, 5, 5-tricarboxylic acid and 3-oxahexane-1, 6, 6-tricarboxylic acid, and alkylated oxadibasic acids, i.e. 1, 2-dicarboxymethoxyalkane. The building performances of the sodium salts of these acids compared with those of disodium oxadiacetate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) using alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS). The detergency tests were carried out on naturally soiled cotton fabrics and the detergency powers were evaluated by Scheffe's method. From Table-13 and Table-14, it is evident that in low molecular organic electrolytes, the destinction among oxamono-, oxadi- and oxatribasic acids is not clear, but the acid which has the minor molecular weight per carboxyl radical tends to exhibit better detergency building performance. On the other hand, much better detergency performance can be expected by the introduction of long chain group to oxamonobasic acid such as dodecyloxyacetic and 3-dodecyloxypropionic acids. This might be due to the synergism with LAS and dodecyloxyacetic and dodecyloxypropionic acids in their detergency.
Egg yolk lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein fraction and high density lipoprotein fraction, were incubated with metallic salts for the periods of ten days. Fluorescence intensity at Em 430455nm, Ex 355390nm in the incubated solution increased by oxidation of the lipid moiety of lipoproteins catalyzed by metalic ions. Changes of lipoproteins were prevented by addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). On the other hand, the ultrasonic irradiation on egg yolk lipoproteins provokes oxidation of the lipid moiety of lipoproteins, but no development of fluorescence spectrum was observed in the course of oxidation by the ultrasonic irradiation. These results suggest that oxidation occurs in the lipid moiety of lipoproteins during the ultrasonic irradiation similar to the case of the lipoprotein oxidized by metalic ion catalysis, but the increase of fluorescence intensity is not accelerated by the ultrasonic irradiation.
Experiments were carried out in order to elucidate the conditions for the quantitative analysis of cholesterol by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and to compare the quantitative values of TLC with those of digitonin-method. The pure cholesterol refined by column chromatography was used as the standard sample for the calibration curve of TLC. Silica gel G and silica gel G-10% AgNO3 for the stationary phase were suited to the determination of cholesterol by TLC. Activation temperatures, activation times, developing solvents, detection agents, charring times and standing times after charring were examined with the both stationary phases. In the determination of cholesterols by TLC with silica gel G· and silica gel G-10% AgNO3·plate, the purities of cholesterol in sample 2 was 99.2% 99.1% and that in sample 3 was 97.3% respectively. Their purities described before agreed nearly in both methods. The data of standard deviation showed in the range of 0.670.70% and 0.830.90% respectively. It was found that values in the determination of these cholesterols (sample 2 and 3) by digitonin-method were slighty higher than those obtained by TLC. Solubilities of cholesterol-digitonide for 95% ethanol in range of 15.025.0°C were measured. The value obtained was in good agreement with the data of Windaus at 18.0°C. The solubility described before was used in order to correct the purities of the cholesterols.
Melting point data of binary and ternary systems of undecanoic, dodecanoic, tridecanoic, tetradecanoic, and hexadecanoic acid are presented. In this study we examined melting point determination for odd-even fatty acid mixtures containing binary systems (i.e., odd-even, odd-odd and even-even) and ternary systems (i.e., odd-even-odd and even-odd-even) by microscopic melting point apparatus. It was found that the melting points of these mixtures depend on the type of the composition of mixtures.
The progress of coversion to biodegradable surfactants in Japan from 1967 to 1973 was studied, in practice, on determination of individual components of anionic surfactants present in raw municipal sewage. The determination of anionic surfactants was carried out by infra-red spectroscopy. In raw municipal sewage the ratio of biodegradable synthetic snionic surfactants in total synthetic anionic surfactants was about 30% in 1967, and increased year by year, and had exceeded 90% in 1973.
A modified TBA test as a method of monitoring lipid oxidation was proposed. This modification bases on the fact that when sodium sulfite is added to TBA reaction mixture, no yellow color is produced and a development of red color increases.