ITE Technical Report
Online ISSN : 2424-1970
Print ISSN : 1342-6893
ISSN-L : 1342-6893
22.28
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    Pages Toc1-
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
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  • Michitaka Hirose, Tetsuro Ogi, Hiroaki Yano, Naoyuki Kakehi
    Type: Article
    Pages 1-6
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Haptic feedback plays an important role in interaction between users and virtual objects, and in communication between users in shared virtual environments. Recently, many kinds of haptic displays have been developed, however, software is not compatible with those many haptic displays. So, we have developed basic haptic library (HIP : Haptic Interface Platform) for many kinds of haptic displays. HIP enables users to make complex virtual environments easily. Since HIP is compatible with many haptic displays, we will also be able to recycle software and to work cooperatively in making applications. In this paper, we describe the structure of HIP and methods of constructing shared virtual environments with different types of haptic displays using HIP. In the last part of this paper, we experimented on the tasks about manipulating of virtual objects with haptic displays. Also we verified the effectiveness of cooperative work with haptic displays.
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  • Atsuko TANAKA, Koichi HIROTA, Toyohisa KANEKO
    Type: Article
    Pages 7-14
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we describe a method of simulating deformation of a virtual object and providing force feedback during the deformation. A spring model has been commonly used as a physically based deformation model in virtual space. In this method, however, a spring network model shares the structure with a polygon model. Therefore it is difficult to reduce calculation time without losing the resolution of the surface of the polygon model on the surface. For solving the problem, we propose a new method which separates the problem of physical reaction and that of surface representation. The surface is represented by a geometry model while the force reaction is realized based upon interpolation of force generated by a coarse spring model. We found that the object surface is smoothly deformed even though the spring model is much more coarsely defined. The computation time was reduced substantially for real-time operation. We implemented the models described above. In this way we could realize deforming an object with a force sensation in real-time.
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  • Hiroo IWATA, Hironori NAKAGAWA
    Type: Article
    Pages 15-18
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes about design and evaluation of wearable force display. We developed a 3 DOF joystick that is mounted on a user's arm. The device is mobile and easy to put on. Force is applied between arm and fingertip. Fingertip is much sensitive than arm so that the user can feel virtual wall at the finger. Performance of the device is tested by manipulation of virtual buttons and tracing task of virtual walls.
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  • Kinya FUJITA, Takuho OKUDA
    Type: Article
    Pages 19-22
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    The role of force and tactile information in the cognition of the hardness of an object was experimentally discussed. The cognitive rate of four hardness level was measured in ten normal volunteers with 1)actual object, 2)actual object without tactile information, 3)virtual object with glove-shaped force display system and 4)virtual object combined with visual display. The cognitive rates in the experiments without tactile or visual information, were significantly lower (81 or 78% against 90 or 92%) than them with tactile information. It was also suggested that the part of the lower cognitive rate with force display system can be improved by teaching an adequate mental model.
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  • Haruo NOMA, Masashi KITAHARA, Tsutomu MIYASATO
    Type: Article
    Pages 23-30
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    We propose a new tactile display using electororheological fluids in this study. A Tactile sensation is important factor to allow a user handle an object well, and the display for the sensation has been studied until now. An ideal tactile display should presents some kinds of mechanical stimulus for whole of user's skin. It, however, is hard because of the mechanical limitation of the display. The goal of this study is to realize a tactile display that can generate a controllable micro vibrations on a user's finger tip, and should be enough small and light not to prevent user's motion. In the paper, we report the results of a numerical simulation to evaluate our design.
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  • Hiroaki YANO, Tetsuro OGI, Michitaka HIROSE
    Type: Article
    Pages 31-36
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    This paper described a method of synthesizing haptic sensation to the whole human body using vibrators in large working volume virtual environment. In such environment, haptic devices must have following characteristics, (1) large working volume (2) light weight (3) easy to move. Vibrating device is satisfied such characteristics. By setting some vibrating device to user's body and controlling the pattern of the vibration, we can feel the virtual object. We developed a vibrating device in CABIN(Computer Augmented Booth for Image Navigation). Using this system, we can feel virtual objects and walls through the whole body and walk virtual world to avoid interfering these walls. The effectiveness of this system is tested through the some experiments.
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  • Tomohiko HIGASHI, Toshihiro MASAKI, Yoshifumi KITAMURA, Fumio KISHINO
    Type: Article
    Pages 37-44
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a method to manipulate objects with chopsticks in a virtual environment. Here, the exact interactions in multiple stages are introduced, i.e., between hand and chopsticks, and chopsticks and object. For the interaction between hand and chopsticks, constraints coming from the correct table manner are implemented to operate chopsticks correctly. An exact real-time interference detection algorithm for polygonal objects is also used to prevent interference between hand and chopsticks. On the other hand, two methods to pick up virtual objects are proposed for the interaction between chopsticks and object, i.e., an approximated test using a chopsticks-pointer and a bounding box of an object, and exact test using polygonal shape representations.
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  • Yuichiro KUME, Keiichi YAMAMOTO, Takayuki YAMADA, Masatoshi ISOBE, Mot ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 45-52
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In order to construct virtual environments, 3D displays using retinal disparity have been employed in most of the system. However, depth perception of virtual objects with such displays is known different from that of real objects, due to the unbalance of ophthalmic accommodation and convergence. In this study, we developed a device providing depth cue by use of haptic phantom sensation elicited by mechanical vibrators in order to handle virtual objects. The depth cue is mapped to the position of the phantom sensation. Operators' task performances with this device to move and deform virtual objects were measured, and the effectiveness of the device related to 3D information display methods are discussed.
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  • Michitaka HIROSE, Shinjiro WATANABE, Tomohiro TANIKAWA, Takaaki ENDO
    Type: Article
    Pages 53-58
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a new approach to generate novel images by using 3-D layer presumption method. In order to extract layers, our proposed method begins with a pair of images with position and orientation information. We zoom and rotate one image in several ways, then compare the changed image with another image. Next, the similar part of regions can be extracted. Lastly, each plane which is texturemapped with the each image of extracted region is arranged to the distance calculated by zooming rate. After the arrangement, we can observe the scene from various viewpoints. The strength of our approach is the ability to avoid correspondence problem inherent in 3-D reconstruction procedure. We think this method is effective to develop wide-range photo-realistic virtual environment by using vehicle-mounted cameras.
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  • Chizuru NAKAGAWA, Mieko OHSUGA, Takashi TAKEDA
    Type: Article
    Pages 59-64
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, "Virtual Environments"(VE) technology also called as "Virtual Reality" has rapidly advanced. However, a potential hazard to users of VE has been discussed. Actually, it is reported that some users complain of discomfort during and after the experience of VE. We have started the study toward VE-Sickness assessment. This paper reports the results of our preliminary experiment focusing on the autonomic responses such as heart rate, respiration, electrogastrogram, and so on. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment and were given some types of simulated viewpoint movement in a random dots environment. The results show the correlation between the subjective feelings of discomfort in VE-sickness or other stress such as "irritation" and the respiratory frequency.
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  • Dazhao YANG, Hiroshi ANDO, Wei Wu, Takeshi KUNIHIRO, Hiroshi SHIMODA, ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 65-72
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    The subject of this study is to develop sensing and design methodologies for real-time simulation of natural human body motion and facial expression at mutual adaptive man-machine interface. In order to realize the simulation methods, we have thus developed two systems separately : one is to simulate human body motion and the other is for facial expression. Both systems are based on actual measurement of human behavior. In this paper, details of the two systems will be explained, followed by further researchneeded in future.
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  • Nobuyuki Ichiguchi, Takuya Mitani, Michiya Yamamoto, Tetsuo Tezuka, Hi ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 73-78
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Application of Distributed Virtual Environment(DVE) System technology has been studied, as an effective training method for machine-maintenance by group work. The feature of this DVE system is that it aims at affording Multi-Modal Communication(MMC) so that the users (either trainees or instructor) be able to not only watch the behaviors of other members but also communicate verbally with each other in synchronous mode. In this study, observing and recording system has been developed additionally for DVE based group training system as the device of enhancing training course, which can help instructors give effective advice trainees during training session and by playback mode after the session, or analyze trainees' performance from the recorded data of training session.
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  • Akinari ITO, Satoshi USA, Yoshihiro ITO, Eiji YODOGAWA, Yasunori MOCHI ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 79-86
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes an objective estimation of the effects of interactive multimedia. Concentration degree during a video game was measured with biological information obtained from pulse wave, breathing, GSR and eye-movement. Multiple regression analysis show that the correlation between pulse rate, breathing and concentration is high (0.93). A proficient player of a driving game tends to breath in just before difficult cornering, and his gaze points are distributed farther than the game monitor position.
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  • Yasuyuki YANAGIDA, Susumu TACHI
    Type: Article
    Pages 87-92
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    If the visual parameters of the remote system or the projection transform used to generate image of virtual environments are inconsistent with those of the display device, the operator recognizes the remote/virtual environment as a strange world. For the systems using HMD, field of view and the distance between two viewing points have to be considered as such parameters. In this paper, this strangeness, which have been reported as operator's subjective impression, is analyzed geometrically. Furthermore, a method to reduce the strangeness by controlling the scaling factor of the rotational motion of the head of the remote robot/virtual human is shown.
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  • Masatsune Tamura, Takashi Masuko, Takao Kobayashi
    Type: Article
    Pages 93-98
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a technique for synthesizing lip movements that synchronize with given utterances based on HMM. In the training stage of the technique, speech unit HMMs are trained with audio and visual parameter vector sequences that represent speech and mouth shapes. Then speech unit HMMS are splitted into speech and visual parameter parts. In the recognition stage, input speech is converted into a transcription and a state sequence using the speech part of the HMMs. In the synthesis stage, a sentence HMM is constructed by concatenating visual parameter part of the HMMs corresponding to the transcription for the given speech. Then an optimum parameter vector sequence in an ML sense is obtained from the sentence HMM. The generated parameter sequence reflects statistical information of both static and dynamic features, and synthetic lip animation becomes quite smooth and natural.
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  • Masahiko INAMI, Naoki KAWAKAMI, Yasuyuki YANAGIDA, Taro MAEDA, Susumu ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 99-102
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper we propose the new type Augmented Reality system using optical projection type Object Oriented Display. This system allows any objects painted retroreflector to display virtual images. And this system can display with correct occlusion between real image and virtual image.
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  • Tomotaka TANIGUCHI, Ryo TAKAMATSU, Makoto SATO
    Type: Article
    Pages 103-110
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we name the action of browsing 3D virtual space in human scale virtual environment using scrolling technique "space browsing", and propose space browsing interface system based on estimating user's head posture. Head posture estimation is carried out in real-time by processing image of an oval marker put on user's head. Because the oval marker is attached on a cap, a user can put on the marker easily and naturally by just wearing the cap. Our method gives natural feeling to a user because the direction of scrolling has good consistency to user's direction of attention. We made experiment in which space browsing interfaces based on mouse and our method are compared, and the result shows that our method gives shorter task completion time.
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  • Masaki Saga, Takami Yasuda, Shigeki Yokoi
    Type: Article
    Pages 111-116
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we describe a scheme to make VRML data for 3D real objects such as buildings in a town by using some 2D photos. Our purpose is not to describe the details of each objects, but to realize relatively huge area in virtual space in a simple manner. We can construct a 3D virtual town on a WWW browsing software once some 2D photos are input. In walking through the virtual town, LOD(Level Of Details) for the textures is effectively used.
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  • Hirotake ISHII, Tetsuo TEZUKA, Hidekazu YOSHIKAWA
    Type: Article
    Pages 117-122
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    A support system has been developed for designing and constructing the VR-based training environment for machine maintenance work without any expertise programming effort. The features of the developed system are : (1) the user can feed the necessary information under GUI environment, and (2) the user can set the state transition of objects by constructing Petri net visually. It was verified through some experiments that the developed system can reduce the workload and working hours remarkably, needed for constructing training environment. In this report, the system configuration and the experimental results are described.
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  • Yutaka KUNITA, Masahiko INAMI, Yasuyuki YANAGIDA, Taro MAEDA, Susumu T ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 123-128
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Previously, we proposed a new method how to construct three dimensional figure of humans and objects in a virtual environment. The process of this method is so simple -to select, scale and reconstruct scanning lines of several cameras rolling around an real object - that it can be realized by simple hardware. By applying this method to the tele-conference system that we previously reported, -named "mutual tele-existence" - plural humans at the distance can exchange photo-realistic images of themselves with one another in real time. In this paper, we illustrate a prototype using a linear actuator as an implementation of the image synthesis method.
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  • Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Fumitaka Abe, Atsuo Iida, Fumihiko Nakazawa, Yasuh ...
    Type: Article
    Pages 129-136
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Graphical image systems, that displays virtual three-dimensional space based on three-dimensional Graphics technology on the large screen display, has come into use widely. In such situation, new input interface is necessary that detects natural movement of person without restraining motion of person, instead of input devices for desktop environment like a mouse. We develop a prototype system that interactively changes the screen image of three-dimensional virtual space controlled by three-dimensional graphic technology of personal computer according to information like a position, motion, sound or voice.
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  • Takao SATO, Junji YANAGI
    Type: Article
    Pages 137-144
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Stereo detection performance was measured with random-dot stereograms with interocular delay. When a 10 ms pattern pulse was presented at various point of a 200 ms presentation to the other eye, detection decayed quickly and reached the chance level around 50 ms SOA, but detection was almost perfect up to 200 ms SOA when contrast was high. However, when two patterns had an equal duration (50-150 ms), and were presented successively with no ISI, detection declined around 80 ms SOA regardless of contrast level, which suggest limited duration of transient responses even at higher contrasts.
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  • Michiteru KITAZAKI, Takao SATO
    Type: Article
    Pages 145-151
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Physically stationary observer perceives illusory self motion in the direction opposite to that of large-field visual motion (visually induced self motion; vection). It is known that visual motions in large region, retinal periphery, and in far depth affect the self-motion perception. We introduced the oppenent-motion stimuli without any difference in size, eccentricity, or depth, in order to see the effect of voluntary attention on self motion. In results, the vection was perceived mainly in the direction opposite to that of non-attended motion (i.e., in the same direction as that of attended motion). Thus, the non-attended visual motion dominated the visually induced self motion. Since retinal-periphery, far-depth, and non-attended motions were generally perceived as 'ground' in the ecological environment, these results suggest 'ground' rather than 'figure' determines the direction of vection.
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  • Hiroaki SHIGEMASU, Shunsuke SHINDATE, Takao SATO
    Type: Article
    Pages 153-160
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
    Objects and people in stereograms typically appear flat as if they are cardboard cut-cuts. This is still true when the angular size of objects in the stereograms is the same as those of original scene. Howard and Rogers (1995) suggested that the structure from the binocular disparity become flattened because the viewing distance is much smaller than the original scene. We investigated this hypothesis and revealed that in addition to the effect of viewing distance the effect of depth contrast is necessary to produce cardboard cut-out phenomenon.
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  • Type: Appendix
    Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1998
    Released: June 23, 2017
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREE ACCESS
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