In November 1998, the world's first HDTV pictures from space were successfully taken aboard the space shuttle that carried the American hero, Senator John Glenn, and Japanese astronaut, Chiaki Mukai. Various special measures were required to prepare the HDTV camera, with its built-in VCR(HDCAM), for use in the space invironment of the shuttle, in order to satisfy all of the safety standards set by NASA. The HDTV pictures taken in outer space show cliar and detailed images of clouds and geographical reatures of the earth and have been widely acclaimed for their high scientific value. The achievement has expanded the proven possibilities of HDTV as a part of the visual infrastructure of the 21st century space age. We introduce the HDTV images taken in outer space and also present some technological topics related to this achievement.
An ultra-high-sensitivity HDTV color camera has been developed using 3 proximity focused image intensifier tubes of large image size(useful area 40 mm DIA.) and 3 FIT CCDs of 2/3-inch 2M-pixels. It has a high sensitivity of 3000 times as same as conventional HDTV CCD cameras. It makes possible to shoot high-quality realtime-images of meteor nebulae and galaxies.
White defects(W.D.)on CCD determine the lifetime of TV camera on a manned space station. CCD is sensitive to cosmic ray compared with other semiconductor devices. Two TV cameras are terminated after 4 years operation in "MIR", even though other equipment are using after 9 years operation. The results of flight experiment and ground irradiation experiment are compared with each other to generate dark-current increasing. When pass an ion or neutron in a Pixel, it generate the "Flash" event as single event. Multi Pixel Flash phenomena is discussed.
Charged particles such as ion and electrons with keV order kinetic energy are important for probes and signals for surface analyses. Many detection systems have been developed for measurement of two-dimensional distribution for the particles. However, capabilities of solid-state area detector are not sufficient for quantitative analysis for the charged particles, although solid-state imager such as charge coupled device has been great succeeded to photon detection for optical spectroscopy. This paper discussed performance and characteristics of a novel solid-state imager for charged particles. This device is useful to charged particle detection such as mass spectrometry and electron microscopy.
The expansion of digital still cameras into the consumer market has provided opportunities for photographic amateurs to enjoy the new digital imaging. Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. has started Fuji Digital Imaging service("F-DI" service) from 1997. F-DI DSC print service is one of such features, which provides photographic prints from the data shot by digital still cameras. The concept of F-DI DSC print service is described and the algorithm adopted for printing is discussed. Since digital still cameras are developed such that the images will originally be displayed on CRT monitors, it was necessary to carry out new technical development for this particular service. New algorithms including scene color balance algorithm and density correction algorithm are described. The conditions to obtain excellent prints are also focused.
We have developed a new CMOS Area sensor which is the key device of our new 45-point Area Auto Focus (AF) system technology. The new CMOS sensor not only increases the number of pixels, but is also able to write the accumulated data at high speed while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. And this makes it an optimum device for high-speed, high-density and high-precision AF.
This paper proposes a method of visual motion detection for vision chips which robustly detects the direction and the velocity of the motion of the objects under the real world. By using a spatial edge as a token, the method detects the motion from the correlation of the token. A computer simulation at the image processing level showed the method detects the motion in wide velocity range compared with the conventional methods. The method was implemented on an experimental vision chip using CMOS process. An experiment showed the vision chip robustly detects the direction and the velocity.
A CMOS image sensor integrating gamma correction and gain control functions is presented. The proposed method is based on a fact that gain variation and level shifting in logarithmic compressed domain are equivalent to the gamma correction and the gain control, respectively, in the exponentially expanded domain. The prototype sensor integrating proposed function is fabricated with triple-metal double-polysilicon n-well 0.6μm CMOS technology. As a result of calculation using mesurement data of test ciucuits, the gamma value can be adjusted to 0.45 when the gain given in the logarithmic compressed domain is 0.741, and a gain of 20dB is obtained by the voltage level shift of 60mV.