Social consequences of the Fukushima NPP Accident are reviewed and generalized to discuss the disaster risks and vulnerabilities with a low probability and high consequences (LPHC). Probabilistic risk assessments and sociological risk studies are both referred and employed to understand an alteration in the public risk acceptance with a risk transference. A possible scenario towards a social innovation is thereupon proposed to cope with the risks of LPHC in the future.
"All hazards" approach has been adopted by many developed countries to tackle with such national safety and security issues as 9.11 terrorist attack and large-scale floods. The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 should have been the trigger for Japan to depart from fragmented governmental response to start a more coordinated "all hazards" approach. However, that is yet to be seen. The concept of "risk governance" is still lacking in the resilience strategy. In order to improve Japanese risk governance, we have started a study on "all hazards" approach from two perspectives; subjective and objective.
Recently, superflares with energy 100-1000 times more than that of the most energetic solar flares have been discovered in solar type stars. Can such superflares occur on the present Sun? If so, what is the frequency? What is the actual disaster of our civilization if they occur at present? These questions and preliminary answers will be discussed.