The simplified international diagnostic criteria for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), re-revised by the International AIH Group in 2008, were investigated in 114 patients with AIH from 15 centers in Japan. While applying of the criteria, we had to pay attention to anti-nuclear antibody measurement methods, and liver histology scoring. Definite and probable AIH were diagnosed in 83 and 22 patients, respectively. The criteria were found to be useful for the diagnosis of AIH in Japan. However, 9 patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria showed normal immunoglobulin G levels or were negative for autoantibodies. As the criteria were unreliable for diagnosing such atypical cases in the present series, we speculated that we should not rely solely on these, criteria and take a more holistic approach to diagnosis in such cases.
A gastric tumor was pointed out in 43-year-old woman as a result of a medical check-up. We performed partial gastrectomy based on a preoperative diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, as intraoperative frozen section histological examination showed lymph node metastasis, we performed a total gastrectomy simlilar to cases of gastric cancer with lymph node dissection. Postoperative histological examination showed that the tumor was positive for c-kit immunohistochemically, and consisted of spindle cells. We made a diagnosis of GIST of the stomach with lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis in a case of GIST is rare, and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a rare gastrointestinal stromal tumor with lymph node metastasis, followed up for 7 years with no evidence of recurrence after radical surgery with lymph node dissection.
A 59-year-old woman, who was given a diagnosis of portal vein aneurysm at another hospital 2 years previously, visited our institution complaining of abdominal pain in November 2005. Abdominal imaging including computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated that the portal vasculature had dilated to 5cm in maximum dimension and its center was at the junction of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. Moreover, a large thrombus was seen in the portal vein, the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. She was conservatively followed-up with warfarin. After 6 months, angiography revealed cavernous transformation around the portal vein was found with collateral flow toward the liver. At the time of writing the patient's condition is stable with neither extension of the thrombus nor constriction of the esophageal varices.
We report a case of pathologically complete response of multiple liver metastases from rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was a 74-year-old woman who had advanced rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases (T4N1M1). Following resection of the primary tumor, she received biweekly mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 5 courses, the liver tumors were markedly reduced in size. Three weeks after the final treatment, she underwent partial hepatectomies. Histologically, no cancer cells were detected in any resected specimens. The postoperative course was uneventful, and she has been well without recurrence for one year at the time of writing. Regimens containing bevacizumab may result in good tumor response. Surgical resection is crucial for proof of pathologically complete response.
A man in his 40s who had made frequent visits abroad was admitted to our hospital complaining of epigastric pain. Ultrasonography (US) revealed an "inner tube sign" in the gallbladder, which suggested a diagnosis of ascariasis in the gallbladder. Pyrantel pamoate was directly injected into the gallbladder via a percutaneous transhepatic catheter. The worm was dead 10 minutes after the injection. US revealed reduction of the worm's length and then the disappearance of the worm from the gallbladder at both 13 days and 2 months after the injection. This method is less invasive than operation and therefore is possibly more safe. It is known that the number of cases of ascariasis may increase in Japan due to increased organic vegetable consumption and foreign travel. We need to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain.
A 73-year-old woman was referred to our hospital complainting of swelling of both eyelids and submandibular glands, nausea, and weight loss. She was given a diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis because of a marked elevation of serum IgG and IgG4 levels and diffuse swelling of the pancreas with stenosis of the main pancreatic duct. Biopsy obtained from the lachrymal gland revealed aggregated IgG4-positive plasma cells, leading to the diagnosis of Mikulicz's disease. PET-CT revealed an accumulation of FDG in the pancreas, lachrymal glands and submandibular glands, and lymph nodes in the mediastinum, hepatic hilium, bile duct and retroperitoneum. Three months after the initiation of steroid therapy, the serum levels of IgG and IgG4 decreased and FDG accumulations of the systemic lesions were no longer visible on PET.
A 63-year-old man was admitted with left pleural effusion, and an amylase level of 30994IU/l. A diagnosis of pancreaticopleural fistula was made, based on the findings of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP). After the placement of an endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage tube, the pleural effusion markedly reduced. When ERP was performed for internal drainage, the main pancreatic duct and stricture were biopsied and showed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma histologically. CT revealed a mass in the head of the pancreas. He underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of pancreatic carcinoma presenting as pancreaticopleural fistula with pancreatic pleural effusion. Clinicians should pay attention to the possible presence of cancer and pancreaticopleural fistula in patients with pancreatic pleural effusion.
A 60-year-old man was admitted to our department for further evaluation of main pancreatic duct dilatation detected on ultrasonography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed stenosis of the main pancreatic duct at the junction of the pancreatic head and body. Brush cytology revealed pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Histological examination of the resected pancreas showed a 15-mm in length intraductal growth of carcinoma in situ in the main pancreatic duct, 10mm of which showed microinvasion. There was also atypical hyperplasia at a branch pancreatic duct near the lesion. It was suspected to be an initial stage of pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Intraductal progression type and non-progression type are often suspected in a case showing progression of carcinoma in situ to pancreatic ductal carcinoma, and this case was thought to be intraductal progression.