The efficacy and safety of mesalamine enema were examined in 20 patients with steroid-resistant or dependent, distal ulcarative colitis. Rectal bleeding disappeared in 3 (18%), 8 (50%) of 16 patients within 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the start of mesalamine enema treatment, respectively. Mean clinical activity index (CAI) score after the treatment was significantly reduced (8.1→3.6, p<0.001) . Furthermore, Mean doses of oral corticosteroid after the treatment (7.3mg) were also significantly lower than those before the treatment (12.8mg) (p<0.01). Four patients dropped out. Three patients could not retain the enemas because of abdominal discomfort and one patient had fever and rash. There were no significant differences in age, gender, disease duration, disease type, and mean doses of oral corticosteroid before the treatment between the response group (n=8) and the non-response group (n=8). However, clinical and endoscopic activities before mesalamine enema treatment in the non-response group (CAI 9.8, Matts score 8.0) were higher than those in the response group (CAI 6.4, Matts score 5.5). These results suggest that mesalamine enema is useful for mildly to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis by improving clinical symptoms and reducing corticosteroid.