Background: Transabdominal ultrasound is a promising technique to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between ultrasound findings and colonic inflammation. However, the applicability of transabdominal ultrasound in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the transabdominal ultrasound findings and endoscopic activity in patients with UC. Methods: Patients with active and underwent transabdominal ultrasound and colonoscopy were enrolled in this retrospective single-center analysis. Blood flow in the bowel wall was evaluated by power Doppler ultrasound. Both the thickness and stratification of the bowel wall were assessed by B-mode ultrasound imaging. The endpoints were the correlations between the ultrasound appearances (i.e., blood flow, thickness, and stratification of the bowel wall) and endoscopic activity (endoscopic Mayo Score). Results: There were 34 lesions in 26 patients evaluated. Blood flow and thickness of the bowel wall were positively significantly correlated with the endoscopic Mayo Scores (r=0.43, p=0.011 and r=0.503, p=0.002, respectively). According to the bowel stratification, the endoscopic Mayo Scores were significantly higher in unclear and diminished bowel wall stratifications than in the clear bowel wall stratifications (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). When focusing on the endoscopic Mayo Scores of three lesions, blood flow was lower in ulcer lesions with a diameter of ≥10mm than in those with a diameter of <10mm. Conclusion: All transabdominal ultrasound findings of bowel blood flow, wall thickness, and wall stratification reflected colonic inflammation.
A 42-year-old man, after remission of MALT lymphoma of the small intestine, was repeatedly hospitalized because of abdominal pain and severe dehydration caused by frequent vomiting and watery diarrhea. His symptoms would improve quickly every time when he was fasted and inserted a nasogastric tube. We were unable to find abnormalities on endoscopic examination and computed tomography. He was suspected to have gastrinoma because of active bleeding from a duodenal ulcer. High-level serum gastrin, endoscopic ultrasound, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and selective arterial calcium injection test were done. He was diagnosed with pancreatic gastrinoma in the pancreatic head by endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration and subsequently underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Histopathologic findings showed a 3-mm neuroendocrine tumor located in the duodenal submucosal layer. The presence of metastasis was confirmed in one of the peripancreatic lymph nodes. The pancreatic gastrinoma in the pancreatic head that we initially diagnosed was a lymph node metastasis behind the pancreas. Because additional resection was performed on the duodenum, we were able obtain a diagnosis of duodenal gastrinoma.
A 19-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever of >38°C for 6 days and diarrhea for 4 days. Initially, he was treated for infectious enteritis, but on his second day in the hospital, the two sets of blood cultures came back positive. Cultures from the blood and stool yielded Salmonella sp. (Group O4). The patient's symptoms improved after treatment with fluoroquinolone-based antimicrobial agents for 14 days. Cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia are rare;therefore, we reported this case with bibliographic consideration of the risk factors for Salmonella bacteremia.
The patient is 36-year-old woman who complained of proptosis and was diagnosed as thyroid cancer. The pathologic diagnosis of her resected specimen was papillary thyroid cancer, cribriform morular variant (CMV). Subsequently, she was suspected of having familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), although she had no family history of it. The diagnosis of FAP was confirmed following colonoscopy, which showed multiple polyps, and the biopsies that revealed multiple adenomas and cancers with APC gene mutation. She underwent restorative proctocolectomy, rectal mucosectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, and ileostomy in our department. Cancer in the adenomas was found in four polyps on histopathological examination. CMV is known to be complicated with FAP. However, the number of reported cases remains few. This case was relatively rare, with an initial diagnosis of FAP because of the coexistence of CMV. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer (CMV type), colonoscopy should be considered because of the possibility of FAP.
A 66-year-old woman was diagnosed as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and was previously hospitalized for ascites and jaundice. She came to our hospital for further examination of the liver by needle biopsy, which showed interface hepatitis that mainly comprised lymphocytes and inflammatory infiltrates in the bile duct in the portal area. On the other hand, numerous intracytoplasmic inclusions that were positive for fibrinogen immunostaining were seen in the lobular area. Finally, we histologically diagnosed as PBC with fibrinogen storage disease (FSD). FSD is rare disease that leads to liver damage caused by abnormal fibrinogen storage in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, with only four cases reported in Japan until now.