A 78-year-old female presented at our hospital with hilar biliary strictures caused by gallbladder cancer. Metal stents with a dilated diameter of 8mm were placed in a side-by-side fashion in the left and right hepatic ducts. However, 3 months after stenting, the patient experienced a sudden onset of hematemesis. Emergent enhanced abdominal angiography revealed a right hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm that had likely ruptured, thus causing the hemobilia. Probable association of biliary stents with pseudoaneurysm was also demonstrated. Selective angiography revealed bleeding from the pseudoaneurysm into the biliary stents, which was controlled by coil embolization. The patient was subsequently discharged on hospital day 15.
A 58-year-old male receiving two types of antithrombotic medication developed acute obstructive suppressive cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis. During the first endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure, we performed biliary plastic stenting. Seven days after this procedure and with continued antithrombotic treatment, we performed ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. Twelve hours after this procedure, the patient suffered transient unconsciousness and progression of anemia. Sixty hours after the procedure, he experienced right hypochondralgia and hiccups. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a subcapsular hepatic hematoma. Bleeding was successfully arrested with selective arterial embolization. We suspected that the cause of these problems was vessel injury from the rigid portion of the guidewire during the ERCP procedure.
A 42-year-old male was referred to our hospital with bloody feces and lower back pain. He was diagnosed with unresectable gallbladder cancer with rectal metastasis (T3aN1M1, Stage IVB). The patient was administered gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC). After nine courses of GC, computed tomography showed regression of the tumor and the patient's tumor marker levels had decreased. Therefore, curative resection was performed. Ten months after the operation, recurrence was observed in the rectal margin and GC was restarted. Because the total dose of cisplatin was 1040mg, we stopped cisplatin and continued to administer only gemcitabine (at the same dose). A follow-up examination 2 years after the operation showed no evidence of recurrence. Conversion therapy might be an effective multidisciplinary treatment for advanced gallbladder cancer that is initially unresectable. Herein, we report the case of a patient with advanced gallbladder cancer and rectal metastasis who was successfully treated by curative resection after chemotherapy;we also review the relevant literature.
A 51-year-old Brazilian female who had IgD-lambda type multiple myeloma presented with epigastralgia and obstructive jaundice during her follow-up. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced mass of 25mm in the pancreatic head, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed smooth stenoses in the lower bile duct and main pancreatic duct (MPD) of the head. We diagnosed the patient with extramedullary pancreatic metastasis of multiple myelomas. Plastic stents were endoscopically placed into both the common bile duct and MPD. One week later, she suffered a repeat episode of epigastralgia. A subsequent CT scan showed obstructive pancreatitis due to another mass, 30mm in size, emerging rapidly in the pancreatic body. Pancreatitis improved after we replaced the plastic stent with a longer one so that the distal end reached beyond the stenosis at the MPD of the body. Although both the tumors were treated with radiotherapy and showed temporary reduction, the patient died 1 month later due to progression of the disease. While cases involving obstructive pancreatitis induced by extramedullary pancreatic metastasis of multiple myelomas are very rare, it is crucial that such patients are rapidly diagnosed and treated.