In the assessment of invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the effect of adding X-ray examination to endoscopy was retrospectively investigated in 84 EGC lesions diagnosed at our hospital, including 62 differentiated and 22 undifferentiated lesions. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 75% with endoscopy and 82.1% when X-ray examination was performed in addition to endoscopy. This demonstrated an increase in the accuracy of 7.1% by adding X-ray examination. In terms of presence of ulceration, the additional effect of X-ray examination was higher for lesions without ulceration for both differentiated and undifferentiated lesions. In terms of tumor diameter, the additional effect of X-ray examination was higher for differentiated lesions of ≤30mm and for undifferentiated lesions of ≥21mm. In terms of tumor location, the additional effect of X-ray examination was higher for lesions located in the upper gastric corpus. Depending on the lesion, the addition of X-ray examination to endoscopy contributed to an increase in the accuracy of the assessment of the invasion depth of EGC.
A man in his 60s visited a local clinic because of repeated bouts of intermittent epigastric and back pain since July 2017. He was referred to our department because of suspected acute abdomen. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed an aneurysm in the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and a retroperitoneal hematoma was observed. Although no extravascular leakage of contrast medium was observed, rupture of the aneurysm was suspected based on his vital signs, which indicated a state of shock. Emergency arteriography and coil embolization were performed. After coil embolization, the hematoma started to decrease, and no recurrent bleeding was observed. However, on hospitalization day 10, mucosal edema of the descending limb of the duodenum, thought to be an ischemic change, was observed along with gastrointestinal obstruction. A stomach tube was placed, and the patient was treated with central venous hyperalimentation for approximately 3 weeks. Because the gastrointestinal contrast radiography performed on hospitalization day 30 indicated improvement in the obstruction, liquid diet was started. Subsequently, the patient's gastrointestinal obstruction gradually improved. He was discharged on hospitalization day 47. The cause of the aneurysm in the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery was segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). SAM is a degenerative arterial disease of unknown etiology that mainly develops in the bifurcations of the abdominal aorta. It requires immediate attention because the formation of aneurysms due to SAM can cause rupture and sudden intraperitoneal cavity bleeding. The prognosis for visceral artery aneurysms is poor, with a mortality rate of approximately 50% for cases involving pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm rupture. However, we believe that our experience is remarkable, as we saved our patient's life with conservative treatment involving coil embolization. Duodenal mucosal edema due to ischemic changes after coil embolization was observed, but this condition improved with conservative treatment.
A male patient in his 70s was referred to our department. He was found to have alcoholic liver cirrhosis, esophageal varices, and portal vein thrombosis. Antithrombin III (ATIII) formulation was administered. The thrombus was almost completely lysed 2 days after administration. Because portal vein thrombosis could recur, edoxaban, a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), was introduced to prevent recurrence. After 4 months, he showed no recurrence of portal vein thrombosis. In the present case, the combination of an ATIII formulation as initial treatment and edoxaban as maintenance therapy was safe and effective. The combination of ATIII and edoxaban may be a treatment option for patients with portal vein thrombosis.
Two cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are reported. In both cases, computed tomography (CT) showed hypervascular lesions of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound showed multiple lesions in the pancreas, and each case was diagnosed as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor by EUS-FNA. In addition to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, case 1 had hyperparathyroidism and case 2 had a history of parathyroid tumor. Furthermore, case 1 had a family history of pancreatic tumor and case 2 had a family history of pancreatic tumor and parathyroid resection. From these indications, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was diagnosed by genetic testing. As demonstrated in these two cases, it is important to consider multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 when diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.