Pediatric surgery branched from general surgery like other surgical subdivision. However, pediatric surgery was divided from general surgery not by the kind of organ but age, similar to the relationship between pediatrics and internal medicine. Thirty-two years have passed since the Japanese Society of Fediatric Surgeons was established. However, the systems of pediatric surgical education and scientific activities continue to be derived mainly from those of general surgery, although there is a much closer relationship between pediatric surgery and pediatrics in clinical practice. It is proposed that pediatric surgical education and scientific activities should be organized from pediatric clinical perspective rather than a general surgical perspective in the future.