For the study on the basal metabolism (B.M.) during pregnancy, this of 117 normal pregnant women was determined. 1. The difference of B.M. by age was not observed between twenties and thirties. 2. There was no difference of B.M. between those who bore babies of weighting 2, 501 to 3, 000g and those of 3, 501 to 4, 000g. 3. The average calorie per hour per square meter for each month of pregnancy fluctuated somewhat, however, an equation of regression line was found as y=0.82x+33.63. B.M. of the pregnant was increased by 10-11% for the 3rd and the 4th month, 6% for the 5th, 24% for the 9th and 10th to the standard B.M. value. There was a small dip in the 5th month, and it was supposed that hormonal factors were responsible for this dip. The increase of B.M. during the latter period of pregnancy was considered to be due to the increasing mass of active protoplasmic tissue, which consists in large part of the fetal tissues and in lesser part of maternal ones. 4. By the monthly determination of B.M., it was revealed that the average calories per hour per kilogram body weight for each pregnant month were rather constant. By statistical analysis, this constant was found to be 1.09. 5. The body weight in the 10th month of pregnancy increased about 20% to that before pregnancy. From this research, it becomes easy to calculate B.M. and for this calculation, B.M. is designated conveniently as calories per hour per kilogram body weight. This may be useful to calculate the individual and periodical requirements of nutrients.
Tomatoes, eggplants, and Japanese leek were sprayed with organophosphorus agricultural chemical, washed with water, and amount of residual chemical was determined. It was thereby considered that if a person ate these vegetables in a daily quantity of 80g per adult, about 10mg or so of organophosphorus from the agricultural chemical would be taken into the body. This quantity and about 10-fold quantity were added to baby diet, and albino rats were fed these diets for about 50 days. This experiment was repeated three times. Addition of Sumithion (O, O-dimethyl-O-(4-nitro-m-tolyl) thiophosphate) emulsion hindered the growth of rats but this hindrance was inhibited by the addition of eggs or beef liver to the diet, the effect of liver being especially great. Addition of eggs or liver had no such inhibitory effect when the amount of Sumithion emulsion added was larger (about 10-fold). Addition of ethanol with Sumithion emulsion resulted in death of over 50% of the rats after 10 days of feeding.
Growth-supporting capacity of various non-specific N sources were compared each other and with a non-essential amino acid mixture, when replaced isonitrogenously for the latter. As non-specific N sources, ammonium salts of citric (DAC), stearic (ASt), caproic (ACap), butyric (ABut), acetic (AAc), gluconic (AGlu), bicarbonic (ABc) and sulfuric (ASul) acids and glutamic acid (Glu) were individually incorporated in place of the non-essential amino acid mixture of the diet containing 80% level of amino acids patterned after Rama Rao et al. In all rats fed ammonium salts, considerable weight losses were observed during first 24 hrs., and they restored the weight gain afterwards. In experiment 1, the weight gain in DAC and AAc groups were almost the same and both of them were lower than that of the control group. This difference mainly resulted from the initial growth retardation of the formers. ASt group also lost weight but not so great and grew later at very slow rate. Liver alanine aminotransferase (GPT) and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) activities in the rats fed ammonium salts were rather lower than those of the control group, even after the ammonium salt-fed groups acquired almost the same growth rate as the control group (at the time, one can suppose that non-essential amino acids necessary for body protein synthesis are being synthesized from nonspecific N source (NH3) at the sufficiently rapid rate); especially, in GPT activity, there being significant differences between the control and ammonium salt-fed groups. In GOT activity, the values of these 2 groups did not differ significantly. In experiment 2, AGlu group showed severe continuous diarrhea and slowly restored. The ABut group gained weight at the rate comparable to the control group with a slight growth retardation on the first day and its final body weight was higher than that of Glu group. In experiment 3, addition of ten times more of water-soluble vitamin mixture did not appear to improve ammonia utilization. When the ABc group was shifted on 15th day to ABc diet in which onethird of nitrogen of ammonium bicarbonate was replaced by glutamic acid, the growth rates of these rats were distinctly improved and when the rats receiving the ABut diet was shifted to ABc diet after 11 days, they successively grew well without any initial retardation. The ASul group showed the greatest initial and prolonged growth retardation and afterwards slowly restored. When shifted to ACap diet, however, they exhibited rapid restoration. Similarly, when ABc group was switched on the ABut die ton 13th day, their growth rate was rapidly increased, gaining upon the control group at 15th day. In adequacy of ASul and AGlu to meet non-essential amino acid requirement would be due to adverse effect of their acid radicals. Of the plasma free amino acids, the level of alanine, glycine, and serine always decreased significantly in rats fed ammonium salts.