In applying the concept of Fundamental Nutrition Coefficient, defined in the report (I), a slide ruler for calculating F.N.C was devised. It is used conveniently to judge the degree of nutritive satisfaction of diet and to select out nutritious menu.
The eating quality of various rices were tested. Rices of superior quality (sticky, offflavor, transparent color) are Norin No.1, Koshihikari, Koshiziwase, Yatikogane, Koshisakae, and those of poor quality (less sticky, less off-flavor, white color) are Norin No.43, Nihonkai, Yoneyama, Shin No.7, Norin No.41, Hokuriku No.52, San-in No.52, Mihonishikiand Tangin. Results of statistical analysis of the samples barvested in 1958 and 1959 showed that a highlysignificant negative correlation of -0.921 existed between palatability and iodine-starchblue value of the residual cooking liquid. The tests showed a highly significant negativecorrelation of -0.899 between the palatability and total solids in the residual cooking liquidalthough there were exceptions. Regression lines between cohesiveness of cooked rice and iodine-starch blue value of theresidual cooking liquid were obtained. The line of the 1958 sample showed Y=124.29-209.19X, and that of the 1959 sample showed Y=103.27-194.28X.Standard errors for both regressionlines were very small.
The savouriness of meat that was produced by treating it with certain proteolytic enzymes was investigated, in special reference to liberation of free amino acids and peptides in themeat, applying the two dimensional paper chromatographic techniques. Tough meat was usedin the experiment and the following results were obtained: (1) The meat incubated at room temperature always contained 13 ninhydrin-reactivesubstances that were soluble in trichloracetic acid, of which five were due to extremely smallquantities of cystine and asparatic acid and comparatively large amounts of glycine, glutamicacid and alanine. The other eight were presumed to be peptides (Spots No.2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13). (2) When tough meat was treated with protease Phizopus niveus, the savouriness wasproduced regardless of the quantity of enzymes. The free amino acids were similar to thosefound in (1), but threonine was found in addition. As for peptides, two spots (A and B) other than those in (1) were newly recognized. (3) When treated with a proper amount of Bromelain, the meat became tenderized and acertain amount of savouriness was produced. However, when the quantity of enzymes wasincreased, the savouriness rather decreased. The amount and kind of amino acids formed therewere approximately the same as in (1). As far as peptides were concerned, a certain onedisappeared while four new ones appeared, compared with (1). When compared with (2), spot (A) was missing, but three new peptides (C, D, E) appeared.
The formation of the fatty liver, the growth of rats and their nitrogen balance, through the addition of DL-methionine, L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan to rice protein dietwere investigated. (1) The rice protein diet with 0.36% DL-methionine caused the fatty liver. The additionof 0.4% L-lysine HCl, 0.3% L-threonine, and 0.1% L-tryptophan promoted the growth andinhibited the formation of the fatty liver. (2) The content of rice protein had a certain relation with the formation of the fattyliver. But in case of 10% or 15% protein level this was not evident. (3) The enriched protein content and the improvement of the amino acid compositionin diet were found to increase the nitrogen content in the liver.
After frying pieces of sweet potatoes and onions five times at intervals of a week with the commercial soybean oil, TBA, carbonyl, acid and peroxide values of the oils were measuredand also these were compared with those of fresh oil. Any of these values did not vary linearly, but now decreased and then increased. Accordingto the above results, these testing method seemed not to be appropriate to know the gradeof rancidity of oils which were heated on cooking.
The change of DHA (dehydroacetic acid) which had been added to the processed cheese as a fungistat was investigated. The results indicated that the recovery rate of DHA from cheese decreased with the days of storage and that DHA changed to an unidentified comp ound. The compound reacted with FeCl3 and gave brown coloration as same as DHA, while it did not react with Dragendolf's reagent and did not form a Cu-complex. It was necessary to acidify the cheese with acetic acid before the extraction of DHA with chloroform, because DHA-Na was insoluble in chloroform. The recovery of DHA increased about 50% by the acidification.
Main protein source of Japanese breakfast is rice and soybean, sometimes with fish, andth at of Western countries bread and milk, sometimes with meat. To compare the nutritive value of these mixed proteins, forty-eight male albino rats weredi vided into six groups and fed the following diets as protein source; Group A, rice protein; Group B, rice and soybean protein; Group C, rice, bean andf ish protein; Group D, wheat protein; Group E, wheat and milk protein; Group F, wheat, milk and meat protein. After 5 weeks-feeding following results were obtained: 1) An effect on growth (increase of weight) was in the order of group F, E, C and B, butthe differe nces were not statistically significant. Group A and D showed significantly lower results. 2) The weights of liver of groups A and D were lower than those of the other four groups, and among latters there were no differences. The activity of liver xanthine oxidase wash ighest in group F, followed by E, C and B. Group A and D showed lowest activity. Theactivity of liver transaminase was highest in group F, followed by C, and that of group Aand D was the lowest. 3) There were no differences in hemogl obin content of blood among five groups except group D, which showed an anemic state.
The growth promoting activity of a little dose of TATD on young small rats and curative effect of the minimum amount of TATD on thiamine deficient rats were examined. And it may well be said that the biological thiamine activity of the minimum amount of TATD is found to be equal to that of equi-molecular amount of thiamine hydrochloride. When a large amount of TATD was given to the rats orally, predominant and continuo us increase of thiamine contents of principal organs and a high urinary excretion ratio were observed. It was assured that absorption rate of TATD from intestine was excellently higher than that of common thiamine hydrochloride. Incubating 35S (lipoic acid labelled)-TATD with heparinized human blood and washing with human plasm, thiamine content and specific radioactivity of blood cells and the rinsings were estimated. As the results, it was supposed that thiamine part of TATD was concentrated and remained in blood cells and lipoic acid derivative part was rapidly reprojected into plasm. When a large amount of 35S-TATD was injected intravenously to the rats, increases of thiamine content and specific radioactivity of several organs were examined. And it was ascertained that TATD devided into thiamine part and lipoic acid derivative part promptly, and thiamine part had a great affinity for liver, kidney and heart, and lipoic acid derivative part had it for liver and kidney, and both parts acted separately and characteristically in the organism, and lipoic acid derivative part was excreted more rapidly than the other part into the urine.
The rats were given the synthetic diet of several kinds of carbohydrate instead of starch, such as sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, sorbose, xylose, lactose or mannose, whichwasc omposed of casein 20%, starch 68%, salt mixture 4%, soy-bean oil 5.5% and cod liveroil2.5%, and water-soluble vitamins were given orally in sufficie nt daily doses. The following was the result. (I) Due to hydrolysis of the digestive enzyme, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose and starch) changed into glucose and fructose, enabling the intestinal canal to absorb them And the following is obtained on the above carbohydrates. Development and food intake of the rats were very good. Blood sugar level, serum protein contents and its electroph oretic pattern and hemoglobinv alue were normal. (II) On the monosaccharide (sorbose and xylose), which is found in nature only in very small quantity as such, the quantity absorbed fro m daily food is very little. Thenoticeable findings were observed. a) Development and appetite of the rats were disturbed. b) The rats looked healthy but died suddenly in a few days. Before their deaths, thebl ood sugar level fell to about 50mg%. c) Serum protein contents, hemoglobin value and red blood cell count showed an increase The authors believe that these increases are due to the concentrationofblood. (III) On the lactose and mannose, values between (I) and (II) were observed About half of the rats died after a few days in about two weeks, and on the rats that were alive, centred around the caecum, their ileum and colon were very much enlarged.