Manganese, copper and zinc contents of 87 Japanese foods were determined and the data were tabulated. Cereals, nuts, beans, mushrooms and seaweeds were generally rich in manganese, the highest value of 7.00mg% was found with dried Juda's ear (Auricularia auricula-judae, Schroet). Copper was contained universally but poorly in almost all foods examined, the highest being 3.41mg% in dried brewer's yeast. Meats, milk and its products, cereals and beans contained much zinc. The highest content found 8.80mg% in beef liver.
The effect of enrichment of vegetable protein with lysine and the assay of several lysine derivatives have been studied. Actual growth of and nitrogen efficiency in rats fed on the enriched diet for30 days were employed as criteria of the effect. There was observed a slight effect when the total protein content of the basal diet was less than6%, for example, when the protein source of the diet was rice powder only, even if it was enriched with 0.2% of L-lysine. When crude wheat gluten or corn protein was added to the diet so as to increase the protein content to 10%, the effect of lysine enrichment was increased remarkably, though the balance of amino acids was not changed in parallel. According to this method, lysine derivatives were assayed exactly. Enrichment with 0.2% of DL-lysine showed no effect but enrichment with 0.4% of DL-lysine was as effective as that effected with 0.2% of L-lysinye. L-lysine-L-glutamate and E-acetyl-L-lysi ne were as effective as equimolar L-lysine-HC1, but ε-benzoy1-DL-lysine exhibited no effect. Injectionof 10mg. of L-lysine twice daily (this dose is equal to enrichment of the basal diet with 0.2% of lysine) was not effective, whereas 30mg. twice daily was effective though less than enrichment with 0.2% of lysine.
Following the report I, the assay of triptophane (TP) and its derivatives has been studied and a comparison also has been made on their nutritiv values. In the first experiment the basal diet was composed of crude corn protein, dextrin, oil, mineral, and vitamins, and its protein content was limited to a level of 10%. The enrichment of this diet with 0.2% of lysine was not effective, while the enrichment with both lysine and TP was very effective. But the growth curves of rats fed on the diet which contained 0.1% or 0.035% of TP showed no dose-response. When the basal diet was composed of TP-free hydrolysate of casein and others and the nitrogen content of the diet was equal to that of 10% of casein, the results of enrichment with TP or a TP derivative at three levels showed a lineal dose-response curve, respectively. From these curves, it was found that the effect of DL-TP was 89% of that of L-TP and the effect of N-acetyl-DL-TP was 50% of that of DL-TP. These data suggest that the rat utilizes D-TP but not N-acetyl-D-TP. Injection of 5mg.of L-TP twice daily (this dose corresponds to 0.035% supplement of L-TP in the basal diet) was effective but less than 0.035% supplement of L-TP.
In the previous report, it was found that the solubilities of soybean flour for H2O, 10% NaCl and N/10NaOH, together changed distinctly and the chlorine content of protein increased by the fumigation with methyl bromide. In this report it was concluded that the similar experiments with chloropicrin caused the same results, but the changes of the solubilities by the fumigation with chloropicrin were greater than with tetrachloride.The toxic action of the fumigated casein should be examined in details, for the external abnormalities were observed in rat fed on the fumigated casein.
In the previous, it was found that the solubilities of soybean flour were differentially affected by the kinds of fumigants. Then, the solubilities of soybean flour and the chlorine contents of casein fumigated with several halogen compounds were examined.When ethyl bromide was used as the fumigant, the changes of the solubilities and the chlorine contents of soybean flour and casein were as distinctive as chloropicrin or methyl bromide. When methylen chloride, ethyl chloride and ethylen chloride were used, their changes were as small as tetrachloride.
The supplementary effect for nutritive value of methanol-treated decolored chlorella and dried food yeast to wheat protein was examined by the growth of rat and the activities of rat liver xanthine oxidase ane arginase as indices for the improvement of the protein quality. The results were as follows: When 20% of wheat protein in the experimental diets for rats was replaced with decolored chlorella protein or dried yeast protein the growth rate of the rats and rat liver xanthine oxidase activity were increased and liver arginase activity was decreased as compared with those values of the rats fed with wheat protein only. These results indicate that decolored chlorella and food yeast have a supplementary effect on the nutritive value of wheat protein.
The supplementary effects of L-lysine, and L-lysine and L-methionine to wheat protein were examined by using growth experiment of rat and the estimation of rat liver xanthine oxidase and arginase activity as indices of improvement of the protein quality. The results were as follows: 1) The protein quality of wheat protein observed by the above cited methods showed. some defects compared with casein, and these defects were improved by the supplementation of L-lysine. 2) The effect on the arginase activity was observed to be more remarkable by the supplementation of L-lysine and L-methionine than by that of L-lysine alone. 3) The activity responses of liver xanthine oxidase and arginase were found to be able ot useas a index of the improvement of the protein quality by the supplementation of L-lysine.
The supplementary effect of L-methionine to methanol-treated decolored chlorellawas examined by using growth experiment of rat, and the estimation of rat liver xanthine Oxidase and arginase activity as indices of the improvement of the protein quality. The results were as follows: The protein quality of decolored chlorella Observed by the above mentioned methods showed some defects compared with casein, and the supplementation of L-methionine had a good influence to improve these defects.
Rancid oil, either cod liver oil or soybean oil, produced slight fatty liver, lipid nephrosis of kidney, growth inhibition, and death on the rat.Choline had the therapeutic effect on the toxic symtoms induced by this oil especially on the kidney damage, but B12, methionine and tocopherol were less effective.Survivals of this rancid oil experiments could recover from its toxic symtoms for 3 or 4 months after the experiments.
It is very important to know the correct ratio of refuse part of the foodstuffs in order to determine the real amount of food intake. This paper is to report the results of study on the refuses in each stage of food consumption, and a schema was obtained after reconsideration about these stages. As it is observed in the schema, the ratio of the refuse of foodstuffs generally used is calculated from the equation, f+i/E, while in the case of village families, this should be f+i/B. In nutrition research, the intake of foods is ordinarily measured as E-(f+i) or E-(f+i+j), but the desirable amounts of nutritional intake generally used should be set up on the stage of I. (The meanings of the remarks t.i.j.E, Band I are cited in Table I.)
In order to know how effectively the foods were consumed in the village families, and also to obtain a standard measure available for the nutrition survey, a recording survey was carried out about the losses and refuses of various foodstuffs used by the selected 30 families throughout the year. From the results it was apparent that the refuse ratios of some of the foodstuffs were higher than those cited on standard data books, and that the rejected portion of cooked food showed considerably high percentage.These facts should be put into consideration when the results of the nutrition surveys are discussed.
The changes of the amounts of water soluble sugars and water soluble nitrogenous matters and that of acid value of fat during storage were determined on the several wheat flours containing various concentrations of benzoylperoxide (B. P. O.). Following results were obtained: 1. B. P. O. did not inhibit, within a normal concentration as blanching agent for flours, the activities of amylase, protease, and lipase of flour. 2. In the case of high concentration (0.11% of B. P. 0.), it seemed to inhibit the activity of amylase and protease, especially, of those of soft wheat flour. 3. The addition of the high concentration of B. P. O. caused the fat in flour to oxidize and, as the results, higher acid value was obtained.
Preliminary studies have been made on effects of Co60 gamma rays on aqueous solutions of the α and β-glycerophosphates in order to find possibilities of using them as antioxidant or fee radical acceptor (FRA) for fats and fats containing food-stuffs. In general, our results have been found to be in agreement with those reported by Scholes and his associates, except in one respect that with large doses, higher yields of the inorganic phosphate were obtained in alkaline solutions instead of in acidic solutions. Discussions have been presented as to their beingpossible antioxidant for those substances which are known to be readily oxidized by free radical chain reactions by ionizing radiations.
The activity of phosphatidase C prepared from cold storaged carrot roots has been investigated for the purpose of biosynthesizing phosphatidic acids. It was observed that the activity of the enzyme was retained until the latter part of March in the carrot roots harvested in the previous summer but decreased sharply in April when the roots began to shoot. A simpler method of preparation of the plastid preparation than that reported in the literature and optimum conditions to be used with the preparation have been described.
The contents of the calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper in the feces of the rachitic infants with the artificial feeding showed clearly the increasing trends and those of the sodium and potassium the decreasing trends, comparing with those of the normal infants with the artificial feeding. The contents of the minerals in the urine were small but the tendencies of the changes of those of calcium, potassium and iron were same as those of the feces while those of the sodium, phosphorus, and copper showed the reverse tendencies.