Experiments were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of triglyceride accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue of young and aged rats, with special reference to fat mobilization and deposition. In aged rats, the weight of the epididymal adipose tissue was 2, 000 per cent that of young rats, while adrenaline-induced lipolysis and lipase activity of the adipose tissue were 600 and 1, 600 per cent those of young rats, respectively. These results suggest that deposition of fat far exceeds fat mobilizing activity in the adipose tissue of aged rats. It was found that triglyceride synthesis from glucose and palmitate was higher in the adipose tissue of aged rats. Therefore, it is suggested that triglyceride deposition in the adipose tissue of aged rats may not be due to decrease in fat mobilization but to increase in triglyceride synthesis.
Newly weaned male rats were fed a riboflavin deficient diet for 5 weeks, and weights of the bodies and organs, riboflavin contents, and fatty acid composition of the lipids in the liver, kidney, heart and spleen were respectively determined in comparison with those of the controls. The weight of the spleens of the deficient rats was less than that of the weaned rats, whereas the other organs were larger than each of the weanlings. The respective ratio of weights of the liver, kidney and heart to the body weight were larger than the controls in increasing order. Reduction in the quantities of riboflavin by the deficiency was the most in the liver, followed by the kidney, heart and spleen in decreasing order. Fatty acid composition in total lipids of the rat organs was variably affected by the deficiency, but the ratio of arachidonic acid to total fatty acids decreased in all organs. The similar trend of decrease in the arachidonic acid was observed in phospholipids, and the reduction was the greatest in the spleen, followed by the liver, heart and kidney in decreasing order. Fatty acid composition in total lipids in the serum was nearly the same as that of the liver, and was affected by the deficiency as well as in the liver. In the deficient rats, serum cholesterol and triglyceride decreased, but phospholipids and free fatty acids increased respectively in comparison with the controls. The serum protein tended to decrease in the deficient rats.
The present report describes an experiment to study the relationship between etiological factor (s) in allimentary tracts, especially stomach mucosa, and nutritional deficiency such as calcium deficiency. Basal diet resembled to a typical food ingredient in Japan was composed of mostly powdered polished rice, defatted soybean, soybean oil, salt mixture and vitamin mixture. Groups investigated were fed for 8 weeks with each test diet such as (I) low Ca, normal vitamin D, low vitamin A, (II) normal Ca, low vitamin D, low vitamin A, (III) low Ca, low vitamin D, low vitamin A, (IV) normal Ca, low vitamin D, normal vitamin A, (V) low Ca, low vitamin D, normal vitamin A, respectively. On the late period of the experiment, urine was collected to examine Ca and P excretion in such a condition. After animals were sacrificed, chemical analyses on serum, vitamins (liver vitamin A, renal thiamine and riboflavin) and skeltal matter were determined to judge the physiological condition of the animal, and stomach mucosa was histologically examined. Results indicated 1) P excretion was greatly increased by Ca deficiency whereas Ca retention was rather even regerdless to Ca intake. 2) Vitamin D considerably moderated mineral metabolism disorder induced by Ca deficiency, as judged from chemical analyses. 3) Histological findings denoted Ca deficient diet might be a potential inducer of degenerative changes in rat stomach mucosa unless vitamin D was sufficiently administered.
ESR spectra were estimated by the static or flow method in the course of the alkaline autoxidation of chlorogenic acid which is one of the substrates in enzymatic browning of apple. When water, methyl alcohol or N, N-dimethylformamide was used as solvent in the autoxidation of chlorogenic acid, no signal was observed by the static method, but in case of alkaline ethanolic solution, ESR spectrum composed of 14-16 signals was observed and also during the course of the oxidation, the number of signals did not change but only the intensity decreased with time. On the other hand, when above mentioned solvent had been employed, 8 signals were observed by the flow method. The ESR spectrum consisting of 8 signals has the coupling constants 5.0 gauss, 2.4 gauss and 1.2 gauss, which were presumed to be attributed mainly to an interaction of an unpaired electron with three unequivalent protons at position 5, 6 and 3, respectively. Thus, it has been assumed to be the hyperfine structure of o-semiquinone type anion radical of chlorogenic acxd.