It is desirable to utilize the chlorella not only for a resource of food protein but also for the resources of pigments such as chlorophyll, carotene, and of others. For this purpose, the butanol treatment was the most available technique, by this, proteins, pigments, and the other soluble materials were isolated simultaneously. The treatments such as the grinding with sand, freezing with liquid air, and autolysis with toluol could raise the yield of extractable nitrogenous materials.
The protein, so called “extractable protein”, was isolated from 4.7kg.of fresh scenedesmus by the autolysis-grinding-butanol method. This protein, 96g.in dry weight corresponding to. 18 per cent of the true protein of scenedesmus, had a light greenish white colour. The studies on the nutritive value and amino acid composition of this protein are in progress.
The content of hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat-beef, horse and whale-as estimated simultaneously by the spectrophotometry on the extract saturated with carbon monoxide. Hemoglobin and myoglobin were extracted from the homogenized meat with acetate buffer pH 4.5 as described by de Duve. The absorption spectra of the mixtures of carboxyhemoglobin and carboxymyoglobin were plotted by Beckman DK self-recording spectrophotometer or Hitachi EP U-1 spectrophotometer. The content of hemoglobin and myoglobin was obtained from the absorbancy at 560, 570, 576 and 580mμ by the nomograph made by Tsushima and Okazaki. The rate of hemoglobin and myoglobin was also calculated by other methods such as that of de Duve and that of Poel. The sum of these proteins was also checked by cyanide-methemoglobin method. The rate of hemoglobin and myoglobin as observed to remain constant in spite of the difference of the animal species and the localization in the body, accordingly in spite of the difference in the total content of the extractable heme-proteins. The content of hemoglobin was estimated to be approximately 10% of the total heme. No remarkable difference in the hemoglobin content was observed between whale and the other meat, although some difficulties in removing the blood might be conceivable in the former. The hemin content of dark muscles of bonito and tuna was also determined.
Sodium and potassium contents were determined by flame photometry for about seventy sorts of food which were consumed preferably for low-sodium diet. Sodium content of about twenty sorts of cooked diets was estimated and compared with that of calculated data
It is necessary to know the requirements of N, Ca and P for fetus in order to discuss about the metabolism of these elements during pregnancy. Since the amount of each chemical component contained in the fetus could be considered as his requirement for these nutritional elements, it is possible to determine the fetal requirement during pregnancy by analyzing the chemical component of the fetus at each lunar month. The author attempted the analysis of chemical components on 24 fetuses varying from the third gestation month to the mature newborn and followed up the requirements of N, Ca and P in accordance with the gestation month. In the meantime the quantitative relationships of N, Ca and P were observed on the fetus which was divided into the skin, supportive, and soft tissues, and on the fetal attachments. The results of the experiment were summarized as follows; 1) The average amounts of N, Ca and P for the Japanese mature newsborn were 18, 7.24 and 3.81g/kg, respectively. 2) The accumulation of N. Ca and P in fetus is notable at the third trimester, especially during the last two months of pregnancy. The average daily amount of these elements accumulated in fetus raises as the pregnancy advances. 3) 55% of N, 60% of Ca, and 57% of P, were accumulated in the fetus during the last two months of pregnancy. 4) 96-98% of Ca, 87-75% of P in the fetus were contained within the supportive tissues, and the amount of Ca in the fetal attachments was only 1.5% of that in the fetus. 5) The ratio of Ca to P in the supportive tissues of fetus from the fifth month to mature newborn show its peak at the eighth month and remained almost constant thereafter.
There are many reports on the relationship between the time necessary for clotting of milk in vitro by pepsin, papain, or rennin and the firmness of curd formed in vivo, and also on the fact that the longer this time is, the better the digestivility of the curdis. The influence of various preparations or additives on the clotting time of dried skimmed milk solution by pepsin was investigated. Following results were obtained: 1) clotting time was lengthened by a longer mixing or boiling time. 2) the addition of saliva to liquid milk lengthened the clotting time, the addition of salts, on the contrary, shortened, sugar did not show the decided results
The rice produced in Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, Hainan Island, Philippine, Celebes and Java was analysed, with polished or unpolished one. The vitamin B1 contents were also determined and were found to be somewhat lower than that of ordinary rice produced in Japan, with an exception of those produced in Java and “Horai” rice in Hainan Island.
The effect of heat treatment at100°, 110°, and130°C with water and at 105°and 150°without water on the nutritive values of the proteins of kidney beans, green peas, andpeanuts was studied by measuring the digestibility and the liberated amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine, as the nutritive limiting factors, after the digestion with pancreatine. The results were as follows: 1) On the green pea-and peanut proteins, the highest digestibility, was shown inthe case of the raw materials, and this was followed by the materials heated at 130°Cwith water. Meanwhile, on the kidney bea, ns, the reverse was shown.The materialsheated at 150°C without water showed the lowest digestibility. 2) The materials heated at 130° and110°C with water showed the highest liberationof methionine and cystine. 3) On the liberation of lysine, the highest value was shown by the raw materials and the lowest by the materials heated at 150°C without water.
The effects of heat-treatment of soybean and green pea under practical cooking conditions, namely, 1) boiling, 2) parching, 3) steaming, 4) frying in oil, and 5) boiling inthe pressure cooker, on the digestibility of protein and the liberation degree of methioninewere studied. In the digestion experiments, pancreatine was also applied. In these treatments, frying in oil showed excellent results in digestibility and methionine liberation.
Ethyl ester of linolenic acid was prepared by the bromination method on the acidseparated from linseed oil.By heating this ethyl ester in a CO2 stream at 250°C for 40 hours, polymerized ethyl linolenate was produced. This product shows toxicity to rats. Cyclic ethyl ester was separated from polymerizedethyl linolenate by the urea adduct-forming method, and adistillable esterportion (153-175°C/1.8-2.0 mmHg) was separated from this cyclic ethyl ester by vacuumdistillation. This distillable ester shows extremely acute toxicity, and seems to be themain source of the toxicity of the polymerized ester. Judging from its general property, molecular weight, and infrared absorption spectrum, it is supposed that this distillable ester is a cyclic monomer, and that it conteins a tompound whose molecule has a cyclohexene ring.
In the previous papers of this series, it was reported that the cyclic monomer obtainedby vacum-distillation of the cyclic ethyl ester separated from thermally polymerizedethyl linolenate shows acute toxicity, and that this cyclic monomer seems to be the mainsubstance responsible for the toxicity of the polymerized ester. It was also assumed that this cyclic monomer contains, as its main component, a compoundwith a cyclohexene ring in its molecule. Experiment was conducted on the toxicity of a synthesized compound which has acyclohexene ring, and which has almost the same molecular weight as the cyclic monomerseparated from thermally polymerized ethyl linolenate. Toxicity of this and also other cyclic compounds to rats was studied.