In order to examine the effect of amino-acid mixture for intravenous injection.(Vuj-N-type), the excretion of total nitrogen as well as the excretion of individual amino acids in urine were measured after intravenous administration to the subjects who were taking various amounts of dietary protein, i.e.standard period (1.34 g/Kg protein) low protein period (0.53-0.78 g/Kg) and recovery period (1.34g/Kg protein).The results obtained were as follows. 1) The percentage increase of urinary nitrogen due to amino-acid injection was 40-70% during the standard period, while it was 44-73% after three months of low protein diet and 45-110% in the recovery period.The percentage increase of total amino-acid excretion was 4.4%, 2.3% and 3.0% in these three periods respectiviely. Thus the amino-acid infused seemed to be utilized more effectively in the period of low protein. 2) The excretion rate of injected glycine was the highest among those of other amino-acids, and the lowest were those of phenylalanine and valine including leucine and isoleucine.The increase of utility of infused amino-acid in protein deficiency seemed to be the same among lysine, threonine, glycine, and valine (including leucine and isoleucine), while that of phenylalanine was somewhat less as compared with those of others.
For the purpose of exploring the effects of diet on arteriosclerotic disease, changes in serum protein and compound protein by diet were observed in normal men and. rabbits mainly by means of paper electrophoresis with the following results: 1. Higher carbohydrate diet produced changes (an increase) in the α2-glycoprotein fraction, while higher fat diet caused changes in the β-and γ-lipoprotein fractions. 2. The total protein-bound carbohydrate level was not so profoundly influenced by such diet. The cholesterol level was increased by higher fat diet. No increase in the blood sugar level was caused even by higher fat diet in the case of a short period. Rather the blood sugar level increased by higher fat diet.Impairment of Langerhans' islands by fat diet was suspected. These findings also show serological features which seem to indicate liver impairment. 3. Changes in serological findings were connected with being accustomed to diet.
The author has made the study in order to calculate the calcium and magnesium intake from the daily drinking water of the citizens. Calcium and magnesium contents of 22 samples of supply water and 396 samples of well water in Tokyo-to and other area were determined. The results were as follows: 1. The calcium content of well water in wards (in Japanese “Ku”) was 1-117 p.p.m.(the mode was 16 p.p.m. for 24 samples) and magnesium content was 1-70 p.p.m.(the mode was 7 p.p.m. for 45 samples). 2. The calcium content of well water in countys was 6-30 p.p.m.(the mode was 14 p.p.m. for 35 samples) and magnesium content was 1-11 p.p.m.(the mode was 4 p.p.m. for 33 samples). 3. The calcium content of supply water was 14 p.p.m. and 20 p.p.m. From these results the calcium intake of a man from water was estimated to be about 30 mg daily.
The multiplication of Lactic acid bacteria was checked by the existence of a small quantity of sodium fluoride. In this case the concentration of fluorine was between 0 ppm and 1000 ppm. Sir. cremoris, Sir. lactis, L. acifclophilus and E. coli were greatly affected by sodium fluoride, but L. casei and L. bulgaricus were scarcely affected.
On the occasions of the General Inter-High School Base Ball Contests held at the Kohshien Ground, surveys on the nutrition of every team concerned were performedduring the meets, under the joint lodging condition. The results are shown in Table 1, and the following conclusions can be drawn. 1. In the total calorie intake or in the intakes of carbohydrate, fat and protein, their nutritive state was far better than that of the national average of the corresponding periods. 2. The daily total calorie provided (3, 420 to 4, 090 Cal) was sufficient or quite surpassed the daily calculated requirements of the players. 3. The protein level was comparatively high, and could even be regarded as a high protein diet. 4. The diet could also be taken as favourable, being characterized by a high ratio of animal and vegetable proteins (the ratio was calculated as 6: 4). 5. Calcium and vitamin A intakes were amazingly meagre, which require much improvements in future. Vitamins B1 B2, and C maintained numerically the standard. requirements, but when the losses due to cooking (roughly50%) were taken into account, it is highly desirable that those should have been increased. 6. More considerations should be paid with regard to the supply of either inorganicsalts or vitamins
The increase in body weight of white mice, which were placed under daily heavy muscular work, showed certain supression, but the increase of body weight during the after-period of work was higher compared with the non-work lot. The body weight changes observed seem to be associated with the loss and the gain in body fat.
Using white mice and making them exhaust by forced swimming, the protein intake and the time required for total exhaustion were compared. 1. The muscular exhaustion was forced on once daily to the animals. The more fatigued the animal, the more inhibited the increase of body weight, though the nitrogen balance was kept apparently normal-i. e. in the urinary nitrogen, the work caused no alteration in nitrogen metabolism. 2. The time of exhaustion was the longest in the protein free group (protein0%), and the shortest in the protein rich lot (po25%), while the low (po7%) or the medium (po13%) series came in between, showing any appreciable difference each other. In short, it looks as though that so far as the supplies of carbohydrate, fat, vitamins and salts are sufficient, the increased protein supply plays little role-the necessary protein being of the order of 6Cal% to 12Cal%.
The specific dynamic action of amino acid was experimentally studied in relation to the hypothalamus. 1. The basal metabolism of the rabbit is considerably augmented by the stimulation of the sympathetic region, but that of the parasympathetic gives no alteration. 2. Either the stimulation of the sympathetic region or of the parasympathetic results in a lesser specific dynamic action of glycine, amounting to roughly 2/3 of the normal.
The specific dynamic action of amino acid was investigated with the rabbit under various protein supplies. 1. Changes in the protein supply did not affect the basal metabolic level. 2. In high protein diet, the specific dynamic action of glycine or of the hydrated product of protein appears most significantly high, while in low protein diet these are much low, being nearly half of the former cases