In Japan, it has so far been said that the addition of a little amount of glutinous rice to common (non-glutinous) rice made cooked rice preferable. This report ascertained the effect by sensory test. The optimum mixing ratio, however, depended on the species of rice, ; the most desirable percentages for Asahi (hard-quality rice), Sasashigure and Koshiji-wase (soft-quality rice) were 10, 5 and 3%, respectively. The consistency of cooked rice in plastogram decreased with increasing amount of mixed glutinous rice, but such cooked rice showing 420-450 B.U. seemed to be preferred by Japanese.
It was reported previously that tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid (new flycidal amino acids isolated from Tricholoma muscarium KAWAMURA and Amanita strobiliformis (Paul) Quel, respectively) have a very good taste. The characteristics of the taste were examined in details, and the followings were observed: 1. Taste potency of the new amino acids are much stronger than that of sodium inosinate and sodium glutamate. 2. There are synergistic actions between new amino acids and 5′-ribonucleotides. 3. DL-erythro-tricholomic acid (synthesized) has an extremely strong delicious taste, but its threo isomer has not.
1) Four kinds of extracts are compared by organoleptic test when they are in aqueous solution and are added to base solution composed of NaCl, spices, etc. The taste or additional effect to the base solution is, whale>mackerel pike>mackerel-I>mackerel-II (treated with Bioplase) in the order. 2) Amino acids in the extracts are separated by paper chromatography (Fig. 1). Much of histidine and lysine are found in mackerel pike and whale extracts. It seems that the histidine and lysine promote a good taste of the extracts. 3) Each extracts shows four to six ultraviolet absorptions on the one-way paper chromatogram and twelve on the two-way chromatogram (Tables 2, 3). One of them gives strong absorption in whale extracts and low in mackerel extracts. 4) Creatine and creatinine in the extracts are determined by Folin method (Table 1). The taste of extracts does not depend upon the concentration of these compounds. 5) 5′-ribonucleotides are determined by column chromatography (Fig. 2). It seems that its high concentration in these compounds does not always produce a good taste.
In U.S.A., the Recommended Dietary Allowances Table was published in 1963 since the latest issue in 1958, and in Japan, the similar table for the target value in 1970 was officially announced in 1963 since in 1959. In this report, our nutritional concept of F.N.C. was applied to the analysis on the transitional characteristics of quantitative and qualitative relationships between the nutritional allowances of each other elements to age groups and the difference of views on the dietary allowances between the two countries was made clear.
The storage experiment was carried out under low temperature, comparing with natural condition, from March to September 1960. In this experiment, four varieties of husked rice were stored in Tokyo and Osaka governmental warehouses. Then the controlled condition was employed as below 13°C and 70-80% in relative humidity. The results of the experiment showed that low temperature storage was especially effective to husked rice which otherwise would greatly change its chemical qualities in usual conditions.
Studies were carried out on the properties of phosphatases in the water-soluble fraction of edible marine invertebrates (shellfish, crab, prawn, cuttlefish and octopus). Two kinds of acid phosphatases are found. One is inhibited by NaF, and little affected by Mg++. The other is activated by Mg++, Mn++ and Co++. Both are active on 2′ (3′) -AMP, β-glycerophosphate as well as on 5′-nucleotides. Some properties of phosphatases in animal foods were summarized.
Some statistical observations were made on malnutrition in infants in Tohoku district with following results: I. Running parallel with the high mortality rate, malnutrition in infants aged up to two years was still frequent, i. e. 28.4% in infants aged 8-12 months and 24.1% in infants aged 12-18 months and particularly in following groups: infants of farmers and labourers, of later birth order and in delayed weanling. II. Causes of malnutrition were low birth weight (9.1% of all cases), insufficient mother's milk (24.4%), inadequate artificial feeding (13.6%), inadequate weaning (34.7%), infections and diarrhea (9.5%) and endogenous disorders (9.5%).
The following results were obtained in the successive study of taste of tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid. 1. 5′-Adenine nucleotides, uridylic acid, and cytidylic acid intensify the taste of tricholomic acid and ibotenic acid. 2. In sodium chloride solution, tricholomic acid was about 5-10 times as effective as monosodium glutamate. Besides, in the presence of 5′-inosinate and 5′-guanylate, tricholomic acid was about 10-30 times as effective as monosodium glutamate. 3. Hydrazides and amides of flavor amino acid, β-hydroxyglutamic acid, have no delicious taste.