For the evaluation as a nutritious foodstuff of chlorella cells containing large amounts of protein and fat, guinea pigs were fed with the diet containing the freeze-dried cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in place of the bran in the common diet which also included bean-curd refuse and some vegetables, and the effects of feeding on the experimental tuberculosis were investigated. The nutritious compositions of both diets were calculated and provided as follows: the caloric ratio of common diet, protein: fat: carbohydrate=2:1:8, total calorie, 168 cal. per day to each animal; the caloric ratio of ohlorella-diet, protein: fat: carbohydrate=1.4:2:1, total calorie, 173 cal. per day to each. After the feedings for 5 weeks with these diets, the animals were infected with 0.01mg of M. tuberculous H37Rv, and the feedings were continued for 5 weeks. The autopsy was carried out at the sixth week after infection. The results obtained might be briefly provided as follows: 1. It was recognized that the chlorella diet was quite useful for the animal feeding. 2. The skin reaction caused by tuberculin (x100) appeared at each third and fifth week after infection in both groups. 3. In the autopsy findings, the visceral lesions of the group fed with chlorella were less than those of the control. 4. The microscopic findings of lungs tended to be equal to the macroscopic visceral findings. 5.Colonies of tubercle bacilli developed less in the cultures of the spleen in the chlorella group than those of the control. 6.The absorption percentage of chlorella diet stood at 80%.
Scenedesmus and Tomla yeast are considered to be useful in the terms of protein nutrition. The present paper deals with the digestibility of those microorganisms by pepsin and trypsin in vitro. The digestibility is expressed by the increase of non -protein nitrogen as per cent of total protein nitorogen. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The digestibility of fresh, lyophilized and methanol bleeched Senedesmus by the action of pepsin at pH2, 37°Cfor24hours was23%, 30%, and30%, respectively. By trypsin at pH8 it was40%, 59%and51%, respectively. 2) The digestibility of the Tontla yeast was 35% by pepsin and 40% by trypsin. 3) Successive digestion with trypsin after peptic hydrolysis showed almost the same digestibility as that by trypsin alone. 4) The approximate size of peptides formed by digestion was discussed from the determination of amino nitorogen increased.
The contents of free amino acids in rice were investigated in detail by the combined use of ion exchange chromatography and paper partition chromatography. Total free amino acids adsorbed on a column of Amberlite-IR-120 (H) were thoroughly eluted with aqueous ammonia (5%), and the combined eluate was taken to dryness in vacuo, after which the residue was dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water. An aliquot of 0.001 ml of the solution was chromatographed on a sheet of paper by the two-dimensional, ascending development method, using 0.1% acetonic solution of ninhydrin as a chromogenic spray reagent. Each spot of chromatograms of amino acids was cut off, and to this was added 2 ml of 1% aqueous solution of ninhydrin and 1 ml of 10% aqueous solution of pyridine, and the solution was boiled on a water-bath for 25 min. Each of the colored eluates was subjected to spectrophotometry at 570 mp (in the case of proline and hydroxyproline at 440 mμ). The results were tabulated in Table 2.
Three sorts of experimental diet having different levels of gelatin and rice protein were given to the rats, and serum and organ cholesterol levels were determined.The diets tested contained, (1) 5% gelatin-1-30% rice protein, (2) 5% gelatin+50%, rice protein, and (3) no protein.The serum and organ cholesterol levels did not show a reasonable change and remained in the normal range in all 3 cases.It was confirmed that the quantity of inferior protein had no influence on cholesterol metabolism.The body weight increase of rats fed with 5 of gelatin-1-5, 00 of rice protein was excellent, and an improved effect of mixed protein diet was notable. The cholesterol level by the protein-free diet was rather low.
69 Japanese words and phrases denoting food likes and dislikes were evaluated concerning the degree of likes and dislikes by using a panel of 100 students. A scale value was determined and its standard deviation was calculated for each word or phrase. The author noticed that there were more words and phrases denoti ng extremelikes or dislikes of food in Japanese language, compared with those in English. A scale including 9 words or phrases selected from the 69 tested was presented for practical use in the measurement of food preferences.
The annual investigation on the growth and health conditions and the nutrient intakes of the children of two to four years of age, who were the same subjects in the authors'preceding paper gave the following results. 1) Growth and health conditions: The height and weight gain of the children through a year was more than those of the standard figure of Japanese children in the identical a ge, level. The number of the days in which the children showed poor appetite was 1.7% to 13.2% of total experimental days, and the number of the sedentary days was 1.1% to 15.0% of the total. 2) Nutrient intakes: The nutrient intakes of the most infants with a few exceptions exceeded 80% of the Japanese recommended allowance of nutrients. 3) It was impressed that in was not appropriate to try to correlate the nutrient intakes of the children and their growth and health condition in a 5mall group like this. 4) Among the infants who have had a good dietary life, the effect of the different nutrient intakes on health and growth did not appear so clearly.
As the results of the experiment on human subjects and animals, it has long been known that the severe exercise may cause anemic symptoms. The authors found that some sports-players developed symptoms of“Sports-anemia”at the end of one we ek's stay in the training-camp.The erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration declined and retic ulocyte count increased than before entering the camp. Such sports-anemia was due to the destruction of erythrocytes by hard training; and it might be classified as a normocytic or slightly macrocytic normochromic anemia, because the color index usually remained almost unchanged while the volume index was normal or increased a little. The observation on various sports-players of their blood properties at rest or basal state indicated that, with the athleters of champion classes, erythrocytes count and hemoglobin concentration were higher than normal, while with the unexperienced athleters the values were often low and sometimes in the anemic range.
In order to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of the amino acids administration for the sports-anemia caused by excessive sports trainings, the exercising albino-rats and sports-players in training were administered with amino-acids, and its effect on their blood composition was examined.The results obtained were as follows: When the albino-rats were forced to keep running for 14 days the“sports-anemia” appeared; progress of this anemia could be inhibited by the administration of threonine or its ferrous salt. Sports-players taking hard training can be prevented or recovered from the anemia by the long-period administration of composite amino-acids or threonine ferrous salt.
The effects of amino acids upon the autoxidation and the photoxidation of L-ascorbic acid were studied, obtaining the following results. 1) L-Glutamic acid restrained the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid most remarkedl y. L-Na-glutamate sho wed the same effect. 2) L-Aspartic acid and L-methionine also restrained the oxidation. 3) L-Tryptophan accelerated the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid most strikingly, particularly under ultraviolet rays.L-Phenylalanine also showed the same effect. 4) L-Threonine, L-serine and L-hydroxyproline seemed to accelerate the oxidation. 5) L -Histidine-HC1 restrained the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid in the dark, while it accelerated the oxidation under ultraviolet rays. 6) Other amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-proline, L-arginine-HC1 etc.) did not show such an effect.
The separation of erythorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid was successfully made by the application of descending paper chromatography with the paper of 5×60cm, which was pretreated with 2% HPO3. A solvent of acetonitrile system (CH3CN: CH3COCH3: CH3COOH: H2O as 80: 5: 1.2: 15) was useful as the mobile phase.After arrival of the solvent to the lower edge of the paper, it was allowed to run over for 1 or 2 hours.By this method, as an example, Rf values of 0.56 for erythorbic acid and 0.49 for L-ascorbic acid were obtained. When each 10γ of these acids were charged on the paper, the distance between the center of the two spots was about 40mm. Following the identification with 0.02% 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol, the developed spots were cut off and the acids were assayed by the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. The determination of these two acids added in foods was also done.The recoveries were 95.0-96.5% for erythorbic acid and 99.0-102% for L-ascorbic acid.
Matsutake, Armillaria Matsutake-one of the common edible mushrooms in Japan, sometimes causes toxicosis, when it is stored in an unsuitable condition. Some biochemical studies have been attemped by the author to examine how it becomes toxic and what are the toxic products therein. The results of the paperchromatographic analysis on free amino acids and amines in the mushrooms showed that especially phenylalanine and histidine disappeared quickly as fresh matsutake got corrupt.Phenylethylamine and histamine were identified in the rotten ones.