Present investigation was undertaken in order to examine the condition for the determination of dietary fiber (DF) in the meal under administration on catering service for our college students. The meal consists of typical dishes for breakfast, lunch, and supper, respectively. Analyses were made by modifying the methods of Southgate and Van Soest, respectively. Cellulose powder, xylan (as a model of hemicellulose) and lignin-like material were used as model samples for fiber analysis and the recovery test was carried out for each sample, respectively. The result of recovery test for cellulose, xylan and lignin as crude fiber using AOAC method was 68.1, 1.0, 63.9%, respectively. For the analysis of samples containing cooked rice, starch must be removed by a-amylase and glucoamylase digestions. Complete removal of starch was necessary for the analysis by both the Southgate and the Van Soest methods. Conditions for these purposes were examined. The samples, from which starch was completely removed, were fractio ated into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and the DF contents of the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions were determined by the Phenol H2SO4 method as glucose. Content of lignin was calculated from constant weight after ignition. Total amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were shown as DF content in this report. DF contents in green vegetables were determined by the Van Soest neutral detergent method without pretreatment with enzyme. DF values determined by the Southgate and the Van Soest methods on some vegetables agreed well. Crude fiber contents were determined for all samples, and compared with the contents of DF on the same samples. As a result, the amount of ingested DF was about 15-19g per day, which was 2-3 times as high as the value of crude fiber.
The activity and localization of hydrolysis enzyme of maltitol and the effect of maltose on maltitol hydrolysis were studied using the rat intestinal mucosa. The utilization of maltitol was, further, observed in the fasted and in the fed rats. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The hydrolysis activity to maltitol was highest in the jejunum and was about one-twentieth of that to maltose. 2. The maltitol hydrolysis by jejunal enzyme was strongly inhibited in the presence of maltose. 3. It was suggested that maltitol was slowly hydrolyzed by maltase. 4. When the animal was simultaneously given with maltitol and diet, the utilization of maltitol was significantly reduced as compared with that of the dose of maltitol alone. 5. A portion of maltitol administered was absorbed without hydrolysis from intestine, and the native form, maltitol, was excreted in the urine.
This experiment was designed to examine the effect of egg ingestion on serum lipid levels in man. Seven healthy adults (3 males, 4 females) were fed five eggs daily for seven days. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride in serum were measured before and during the experiment. Total cholesterol and phospholipid were significantly increased after egg ingestion (p<0.05) . However the effect of egg ingestion to the serum cholesterol level seems to be lower than that resulted from the dietary intake of saturated fatty acid. Other lipids and atherogenic iadices did not change in 7 subjects. Anyway very wide differences were found in individual responses. Therefore, the establishment of a new test of loading dietary fats may contribute to predict the atherogenic diseases better than the single measurement of serum lipid in our daily life.
To know a shelf-life of margarine, eleven kinds of household margarine were preserved at 5°C and the change of POV, AV and vitamin A content were investigated, together with sensual check. Besides, unwrapped samples of seven kinds were left in refrigerator and taking out for one hour every day, as a usual handling condition. In addition, as abnormal storage condition, similar samples were exposed to fluorescent light or left under sunlight. Results obtained were as follows: 1) In the shelf-life test, only one sample of high linoleic type developed odor slightly after 12 months. All samples under usual handling condition were not developed any odor for 3 months. However, under fluorescent light, samples of high linoleic type developed abnormal odor within 2 to 5 days, and all samples under sunlight showed same tendency within 5 hours to 2 days. 2) POV and AV were hardly changed during the shelf-life test and vitamin A was remained 97.8% (average) after 12 months. 3) Under usual handling condition, POV was hardly changed and average of vitamin A remained was 99.0% after 3 months. However, under sunlight, POV increased to 45.94-4. 32 (x: 17.56) and average of vitamin A remained was 78.9% after 5 days. In this case, samples of high linoleic type tended to deteriorate more than those of common soft and hard type margarines. But, AVs were hardly changed in either condition.