In order to compare X-ray diffraction intensities of various fibers for the purpose of the evaluation of the crystallinity pellets consisting of fibers oriented at random is usnally used. We deduced theoretically a quantitative relationship between intensities of X-ray diffraction of a real fiber and a random structure. Measurements carried out with rayon fibers and a rayon pellet were in good agreement with the theory.
pH titration curves of wool protein were obtained in the absence and in the presence of heavy metallic ions, such as Hg++, Cu++, Al+++. In order to get the accurate results, pH titrations with KOH and HCl were made of these heavy metallic ions under the same condition as in the case of wool together with metallic ions. 0.4g of air dried wool was put into each bottle containing 40ml. of the following solution. Each bottle contained 10ml of 2 M KNO3 solution, the definite quantity of 0.02 N KOH or HCl and was filled to 40ml. with water (Fig 1). The addition of the metallic ions to wool causes a drop in pH in the cases of Hg++ and Cu++. In a qualitative sense, the greater the tendency for metals to combine with wool, the greater the drop in pH. Cystine, an important constituent of wool, was used for the determination of pH titration. From these tests, cystine seems to form chelate with Hg++, Cu++ and Al+++.
The present paper is concerned with the microscopical observations whose results are collected from a variety of cellulosic fiber samples, of which cross section preparations have been stained by several known representative techniques. (1) Staining techniques used (2) Cellulose fibers in terms of their staining properties (3) Stainability variations among each of the skin and the core groups (4) Staining property changes due to various kinds of chemical treatments It is also discussed on what is implied by these microscopical findings in connection with the fine structures of cellulose fibers.
In order to investigate changes in fine structure of cellulose fibers in caustic treatment, a series of samples were prepared from a commercial dissolving sulfite pulp by steeping in 4_??_18% sodium hydroxide solutions at 20°C, washing and drying. These samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis, and their crystallinity, leveling off degree of polymerization and moisture regain of the hydrocellulose were determined, as values relating to weight, length and width of micells (highly ordered regions) respectively. The length and width of micells decreased with increase in concentration of steeping solution from 0% to 10_??_12% (Fig. 3. 5). This fact shows that transitional area exists in these both directions of micells. The crystallinity also decreased in that concentration range, but it increased again at higher concentrations, while the size of micells remained constant (Fig. 2). Therefore it seems that the re-increase of crystallinity is not due to the increase of size of micells, but the increase in number of micells, though there remain problems in the methods used here to estimate size of micells.
The samples were prepared as follows to minimize the use of NaOH in the oxidation of lignosulfonate to produce vanillin; the milk of lime was added to the S. P. waste liquor to pH 10.5 and the precipitate formed was removed. The milk of lime was further added to the mother liquor to pH 11.5 and the precipitate was separated, and the centrifuged was used as samples. Forty grams of the sample (containing 3.0g of lignosulfonic acid, ca. 30g of water and 70g of lime and other substances) was oxidized with various amounts of solid NaOH, in an autoclave with a magnetic stirrer. The effect of NaOH concentration was investigated without catalyst under the initial pressure of 6.5kg/cm2 at 160°C. The highest yield was obtained when the NaOH concentration was approx. 2N. Therefore this concentration of NaOH was used throughout the following experiments. The maximum yield was obtained at 3 hrs. of the reaction. Under the same condition the samples were also oxidized in sodium peroxide solution. In the experiments optimum time was shortened but no higher yields were obtained in sodium peroxide solution. The rate of air oxidation of vanillin in NaOH solution was then investigated. It was found that the reaction is of the first order, with rate constant 1.42×10-2. The rate constant for the formation of vanillin by the oxidation of lignosulfonate was estimated to be 1.47×10-1 on the assumption that the oxidation reaction of lignosulfonate is of the first order. The catalytic effects by a little addition of some inorganic oxides, salts, and other related organic compounds were also investigated, No higher yields were obtained than that in the case of the addition of nitrobenzene, with which the maximum yield of vanillin was 17.29% of lignosulfonic acid.
When the cleaning action is worked on the surface of cotton tuft, the depth of cleaning layer, due to the relative motion of the beater and grid bar of blowroom machinery, obtained is as follows; where δ1: depth of cleaning layer on EO and FS, δ2: on CO, Ca: cleaning action in %, Sv: specific surface area by tuft volume. These considerations suggest that the trash content of processing cotton may be calculated as a measure of the breaking ratio. where _??_: trash content decrease of processing cotton in each machinery, α: breaking ratio. l: length of cotton tuft, φ: ratio of trash content on cotton tuft in each process, D: variation of tuft length in %.
In order to decide the fundamental rule of beating and cleaning actions of machinery, following formula are deduced by dimentional analysis. where Ca: cleaning action in %, Rbt: trash content % of bale cotton, Kc, Kp: coefficient of cleaning action and beating power, P: beating power in kg-m/sec, L: diameter of beater and cylinder in m, Q: cotton feed in kg/sec, Z: number of blade or striker, i: number of line of striker, η: striking effect, Sv: specific surface area of cotton tuft based on volume in 1/m, n: rotating speed of beater in r. p. s., γs, γf: specific weight of cotton tuft and air in kg/m3, e: clearance gauge of grid bar and beater in m, θ: arrangement angle of grid bar in deg. By calculation the coefficient of cleaning and beating are as follows: [Kc: 0.10_??_1.3 (HBB) to 0.00068 (FS), Kp: 5_??_15 (HBB) to 0.025 (FS)]
μa and μw, the anti- and with-scale coefficients of friction, were measured in distilled water by means of the incline method and the following results were obtained. The rider was made of Pt, whose diameter and weight were 0.3mm and 14.2mg respectively. (1) μa and μw, distributions are logarithmico-normally, but in practice the data can be treated as normal-distributions as the dispersions are small. (2) The distributions of (μa-μw), (μa-μw)/μw and (μa-μw)/(μa+μw) of the untreated rabbitt fibre are approximately of χ2-type. (3) μa and μw of the untreated rabbit fibre are smaller than those of wool, mohair and camel hairs and cat fur. (4) Both μa and μw of the rabbit fur become larger and approach to μ of wool and camel hairs, when it is carroted. 5) This rate of increase of μ is different from fibre to fibre, but that of the fibres of smaller μ is larger than that of larger μ. (6) (μa′-μw′), (μa′-μw′)μw′ and (μa′-μw′)/(μa′+μw′) of the carroted fibre do not depend on the corresponding values of the untreated fibre. (7) μw of the untreated fibre increases with μa until it reaches 0.6 and then becomes constant. In the case of the carroted ones the same trend is seen in μa_??_μw but without saturation. (8) μ′ of the carroted fibre increases as the carrotting temperature is raised.
The resin formation within cellulosic fibers after treated with dimethylol urea (DMU), dimethyloll ethyleneurea (DMEU), trimethylol melamine (TMM) and dimethylol melamine (DMM) was discussed by applying the modified three-element model on their stress-strain curves. The followingconclusions were obtained: (1) When viscose or Bemberg rayon was treated with DMU, TMM and DMM the elastic modulus increased with resin content, but no apparent difference in these increases was observed, while DMEU gave a little increase, especially at the lower content, i.e. under 5%. When acetate rayon was treated with DMU, no increase was observed. The increase in modulus of the resin treated cellulosic fibers may be affected mainly by cross linking effect caused by the secondary bond between cellulose molecules and resin within the fiber rather than linear cross-linkage by the primary bond. (2) It was found that DMEU gave evident linear cross-linkage to the cellulosic fibers, but DMM did practically not. Uncross-linking property of DMM may be caused by the fact that DMM. has a remarkable adsorption property like direct dyes at room temperature. TMM also had similar property, though less than DMM. DMU seemed to form the linear cross-linkage partially. (3) The saturation effect in cross-linking was observed at 5-10% resin content when Bemberg rayon was treated with the various resins mentioned above, while such effect could not be observed in viscose. This effect may be caused by the network structure of Bemberg rayon.
Some direct blue dyes, such as Dianil Blue G, Benzo Azurine G and Chlorazol Sky Blue FF, and three copper complex dyes derived from above dyes are selected and used. The maximum wave length of these spectra of complex dyes in solutions is shifted toward shorter wave length side, as compared with these of the original dyes. The absorption spectra of viscose films dyed or treated with 1% CuSO4 aqueous solution after dyed are measured, and the deformation of these spectra by dry heating until 85°C, is discussed. The results of the experiments are shown as follows: (a) The spectra of films dyed with former blue dyes deformed by dry heating. By increasing the temperature, the absorption curve is reduced at red side of the main absorption band. The rate of this deformation is comparatively accelarated by introduction of NH2 groups at peri-positions of OH groups, such as Blue FF. (b) By the aftertreatment with CuSO4 aq. solution, these changes of color on dyed films are generally reduced. (c) No deformation of the absorption curve is observed by heating in the case of the film dyed with complex dye of Dianil Blue G, but the orther complex dyes are slightly deformed. The color change of the films dyed with complex dyes is similer to those of copper aftertreatedfilms.