In the previous paper , we discussed an experimental method for estimating seam shrinkage along the optional direction of fabric using a variable top feed and differential drop feed sewing machine. In this study, we considered to apply computerized sewing to easing in sleeve cap seam using the results in the previous paper. The results obtained were as follows: At first we obtained seam shrinkage ratio of sewn fabrics under predetermined differential ratio conditions experimentally at 4 kinds of sewing angles, i.e. 45, 90, 135 and 180(0) degrees, where we defined 0 deg. as weft, 90 deg. as warp direction, respectively. On the basis of the results mentioned above, we showed a method to obtain the differential ratio by means of interpolation that desired seam shrinkage ratio could be completed in optional sewing direction. As for sleeve pattern selected, we divided the seam line in sleeve cap to several parts and shared total amount of easing with every divided part. The differential ratios to obtain the desired amount of easing were calculated in every sewing stitch in the divided parts. The data were input to the controller and computerized easing sewing was performed using various specimen fabrics. It was shown that the designed easing sewing was done contentedly although the appearances of sleeve samples differed from each other by the fabrics used. We confirmed that the method shown here for computerized sewing was very useful to easing in sleeve cap seam for fabrics with various properties.
Metal fiber has high strength, electro-conductivity and heat resistance. Metal knitted fabric has flexibility and elasticity as well as excellent properties of metal fiber. Therefore, metal knitted fabrics attracts attention as new industrial materials. The relationship between deformation behavior and mechanical properties of metal knitted fabric, which was made with a cylindrical knitting-machine, was discussed in this study. The deformation behavior of knitting structure under tensile loading was examined by in-situ observation. Furthermore, Evaluate the elastic modulus between experimental result and calculated result of Finite Element Method.
Liquid-crystalline fullerodendron having cyanobiphenyl terminals was synthesized via Diels-Alder reaction of corresponding anthryl dendron and C60. The liquid-crystalline properties of the fullerodendron was investigated by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, the fullerodendron give rise to thermotropic smectic B phase, in which the hexagonal packing arrangement of C60 moiety is observed.
Relating to real contact area against plane smooth surface, effects of the measuring conditions on paper friction, surrounding atmosphere and applied pressure, were examined. An optical interference method using a scanning laser microscope was adopted to measure the real contact area against a plane smooth surface. The estimated contact area of paper is around 1% of nominal area for common papers. The increase in the contact area with increasing relative humidity is considered as a cause of the increase in the friction coefficient with an increase in relative humidity. The contact area of paper generally increased in a ratio of two-thirds power of the apparent pressure over a wide range of pressure. It suggested that contact of paper was generally elastic and this fact was one reason describing the decrease in the coefficient with increasing apparent pressure. However the decrease in the coefficient is little and the frictional behavior of paper can not be fully described by the contact area against a smooth surface.
Friction of commercial papers under dry, moderate and humid atmospheres was examined, comparing with those of cellulose film and aluminum foil. The friction coefficient between different papers generally gave their intermediate value. The coefficient between equal cellulosic materials including paper increased with humidity, while that of aluminum against aluminum was constant irrespective of surrounding humidity. However the surface wetting with a slight amount of water on aluminum caused rapid increase in the coefficient. The capillary force may cause this phenomenon, and the sharp increase of friction between cellulose films in humid atmosphere was similar to that observed with aluminum foils which were wetted with a slight amount of water. These suggest that the capillary force by a slight amount of water may raise frictional force of cellulosic materials including paper at high humidity.
Cotton fabrics with a deodorization function were prepared by dyeing with a direct dye and Cu(II) sulfate. The deodorizing rates for ethanethiol by the dyed cotton fabrics were measured by using a gas detector. The dependence of the initial rates on the concentration of ethanethiol was explained by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The copper ions adsorbed on the cotton fabrics by after-mordant had a high adsorption equilibrium constant and showed a high deodorizing ability.