1) A method to obtain a commpressional modulus of textile fabrics by means of rolling friction when a solid cylinder rolls on the fabric is devised and practically three methods i. e rolling. inclined and oscillating methods are used according to the properties of specimen. 2) When a weight of roller of radius (r), and width (b) is W, width of contact between roller and fabric is (a), Poisson's ratio is v1, a compressional modulus of fabrics E1 may expressed as: (4) If contact width (a) is obtained experimentally by a method described in 1), E may be obtained. 3) This method depends upon the roller weight and hysteresis of fabric, but good reproducible values are obtained by considering these effects. 4) A compressional modulus is inversely proportional approximately to its bulkiness, and this effect is very remarkable.
In the previous report on the optical measurement of penetrating light absorbency through a textured yarn the author suggested that the decrease of penetrating light is proportional to the number of fibers in the path of light. In this report, this assumption is discussed, and the shadow factor of crimped filaments parallelly oriented web is defined, which means the shadow area occupied by the filaments in a unit area of the web, as in the case of the cover factor in a textile. This factor of a crimped filament in a stuffing textured yarn is expressed by the following equation; and the equation of factor with piled multilayers of the crimped filament web is derived; where x: crimp length/original length d: diameter of a filament D: distance between filaments in the web n: number of piled layers and then, if; the following approximation is derived; This result is verified by the measuring if the penetrating light decreases through multi-laid textiles and the previous assumption is sufficiently applied to stuffing yarn by the calculation of its “n” and “K0” derived from experimental data.
Though already several years ago, the method of estimation of fiber distribution in the crosssection of the blended yarns has been reported by us, now a more improved method is described here in addition to the previous method. At the first the blended yarns were passed through the celluloid plates in which is bored a hole with a needle and the photographs, enlarged by the microscope of the cross-section of the sample which is made by passing the yarns through that hole and cut, are used as data. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The mutual mixing aspects of the component fibres which are calculated at the cross-section by means of sampling are different from the results obtained previously by means of continuous cutting, and the yarn evenness and the blend irregularity in the longitudinal direction show the significant difference with the values obtained between the long and the short distances in the yarns. (2) The formula modified the Coplan's formula which induced the theoretical CV% was calculated and when the actual CV% was compared with this modified CV%, the cotton fibre in which cotton and rayon staple fibres are blended, or the fibres with the finer denier in the blend of the rayon staple fibre members show to have a tendency to form sectionally larger groups. (3) The ranges for the distribution of the number of component fibres through the cross-sections deviate from theoretical ranges calculated with 99% confidence limit. The range of the percentage of the blended fiber do not deviate from the theoretical as those of the same confidence limit.
Birch and fir (Abies Mayriana) wood chips were cooked with calcium base sulphite liquor at 110_??_140°C of max. temperatures and 120_??_130°C respectively, and comparisons were made on the yields, polysaccharide comosition, degree of polymerisation and physical properties of unbleached pulps obtained. The rate of delignification is significantly slow in the cooking at low temperatures, especially below 120°C, but the screened yield of fir unbleached pulp at the same Sieber number increases with decreased cooking temperature (Fig. 1, 2 and 3). No effect due to the cooking temperatures is observed on unscreened yield (Fig. 3), xylan and uronic acid contents (Fig. 6) of unbleached pulps at the same Sieber number, while mannan ramained in the pulps is somewhat larger at low temperatures, especially, birch wood mannan, which is less (ca. 2%) in the wood, is more difficult to be removed than softwood mannan while cooking (Fig, 5). Xylans in unbleached strong sulphite pulps (total yield is about 60%) from birch and fir woods are rich in uronic acid component, and the ratios of uronic unit to xylans are 1:12_??_13 and 1:4 respectively. These ratios are nearly equal to those of xylans in the woods. Uronic acid component decreases very rapidly with the progress of cooking, and the ratios become 1:30 or more and 1:13_??_14 respectively, in unbleached pulps of 45_??_46% yield (Sieber 20) (Table 3 and Fig. 5). The best physical properties of unbleached sulphite pulps are obtained at the total yield region of 52 to 55% (Sieber no. 50_??_70), namely, the pulps at this region requires the shortest beating time to equivalent freeness (Fig. 10) and shows the maximum tensile and bursting strengths at equivalent freeness (Fig. 9). These properties however, rapidly decline with decrease of the yield. It seems that the decrease of the uronic acid in pulp is closely related with the decline of the physical properties.
A comparison was made on the pulping characteristics, especially the behavior of hemicelluloses during the cooking in production of paper grade pulps, by means of calcium and sodium base acid sulphite, sodium bisulphite, and two stages sodium base sulphite cooking consisting of the 1st stage bisuiphite and the 2nd acid sulphite cooking. These pulps were made from mixed softwoods (spruce and fir), mixed hardwoods and birch of Hokkaido. 1. In sodium base acid sulphite cooking, the rate of delignification is significantly faster than that with calcium base liquor of the same SO2 content (Fig. 1). Compared with calcium base unbleached sulphite pulps of the same Sieber number, sodium base sulphite pulps are higher in screened yield (Fig. 2) and degree of polymerisation (Fig. 11), but nearly equal in total yield, brightness (Fig. 12) and polysaccharide composition (Fig. 13). The rate of hydrolysis of polysaccharides in cooking liquors is greater in calcium base liquor (Fig. 7 and 8), while the amounts of polysaccharides are richer in sodium base liquors when the pulps are obtained at equal delignification (Table 5). 2. In bisulphite cooking, the rate of delignification is so under slower than that in acid sulphite, and considerably longer time at high temperatures (above 155°C) is necessary for production of unbleached pulps poor in lignin. Shortening the times to maximum temperatures (Fig. 3) increases screenings and decreases the screened yield, especially in the cooking at high temperature (165°C), unless penetrating pretreatment (Va-Purge) of chip or disk refining treatment of the cooked chip are carried out. In this process, the decrease of the total yield accompanied by increase of delignification (below 55 of Sieber no.) is greater, especially in hardwood, than that in acid sulphite cooking (Fig. 4). The amounts of carbohydrates in bisuiphite cooking liquors are significantly poor than those in acid sulphite liquors (Fig. 7 and 8, and Table 5), and it seems that this is due to conversion of most part of carbohydrates dissolved in the bisulphite cooking liquors to sugar sulphonates. A considerable amount of furfural is found too, in the over-cooked bisulphite spent liquors of hardwood (Fig. 9 and 10). The formation of furfural may prevent the delignification. Degree of polymerisation of both softwood and hardwood unbleached bisulphite pulps at low lignin content (below ca. 60 of Sieber no.) is considerably lower than the other pulps at the same Sieber number (Fig. 11). These results show that the bisulphite cooking is not suitable for the production of the unbleached pulps poor in lignin. When compared at equal total yield, the unbleached bisulphite pulps are superior in brightness and rich in xylan, but remarkably poor in uronic acid. 3. Two stage sulphite cooking of softwood gives a remarkably small amount of screenings even in production of strong unbleached pulps, thus the screened yield increases to 60% (Fig. 6). The unbleached pulps obtained by this process are somewhat superior in brightness, and the content of each polysaccharide is nearly equal to those in normal acid sulphite pulp.
In the scientific investigation, pure dye is required, first of all, to secure accurate results, but the purification fo dyeis a process difficult and troublesome. Concerning acid azo dyes, most attention was directed toward the preparation of separating electrolytes in the dye. Two methods of general application was studied with this intention. One is to salt out the dye from aqueous solution by the addition of sodium acetate, and the other is to employ weak base type ion exchange resin to remove inorganic impurities and intermediates. The standard analytical method to decide, when purification is carried out sufficiently or to estimate the concentration of pure dye in a sample, is the wellknown reduction process using titanous chloride solution. With the object of establishing these methods and searching the relationship between purification and estimation of dyes, experiments were carried out with old and new commercial acid dyes, and those prepared at laborately making their materials from which the following general conclusions are reached. By titanous salt analysis, satisfactory results were obtained for both acid azo dye and nitro dye, but it needs to provide annoying apparatus and tedious procedure. Salting out by sodium acetate is adequate to purify the acid dye, and by repeating this process several times, better result are obtained. Many dyes have some solubility in alcohol, hence loss occures in the process, and there is the disadvantage of giving a poor yield. The method of ash contents, in which acid dye is burned with sulphuric acid to convert it into sodium sulphate, and then weighted, is apt to be overesimated due to the presence of the electrolyte in acid dye. During the calculation of purity from ash contents analytical data, an interesting result was found that molecular weight of impurities-containing salt outed dye is nearly equal to that of sodium acetate.
The method of appling coupling components to polyacrylonitrile fibre and determining the quantity absorbed was studied. Coupling components employed are β-naphthol, 2:3-hydroxynaphthoicacid, naphthol AS and naphthol AS-BO. As those in the alkali solution absorb strongly the ultraviolet radiation (320_??_400mμ), the amounts of coupling components absorbed into the fibre can bedetermined by measuring at selected wavelength the optical density of remaining liquids applied. Using this method of measurment, factors which affect the exhaustion of coupling components when they are applied, were investigated. The results are as follows. Comparatively low moleculer weight compound such as β-naphthol or 2:3-hydroxynaphthoic acid must be employed as the coupling component, while coupling components of higher molecules are unsuitable to apply because of their lower rate of diffusion. The absorption of 2:3-hydroxynapht-hoic acid is very sensitive to pH in the bath, and β-naphthol is also affected by pH but in less degree. These absorptions fall as pH rises. This is because alkalimetal salts of acid are produced. When β-naphthol or 2:3-hydroxynaphthoic acid is employed, it was found that the suitable conditions of the absorption are: temperature 98°C, liquor ratio 1:50, pH in the bath<3_??_4, time 60_??_90min.
It is known that applying softening agents to the resin-treated fabric improves greatly its physical properties which are decreased by resin-treatment. Authors studied the changes in the physical properties and nitrogen content of resin treated fabric, resulting from addition of alkyl ketene dimers, which are varied in alkyl chain length and concentration to resin-treating bath. As was expected, the results was obtained that addition of alkyl ketene dimer to resin-treating bath improved exellently the physical strengthes of the fabric being decreased by resin-treatment. As to wrinkle recovery, alkyl ketene dimers used to lubricate the surface of the fibres, resulted in much improved angular recovery of the fabric as compared with the fabric treated by resin only. The improvement in wrinkle recovery is probably due to their efficiency as lubricants for alkyl ketene dimers allow the fibres to slip, thereby facilitating the removal of creases. Moreover, exellent water repellent property is imparted tr the fabric by using alkyl ketene dimer as softener whose carbon number in alkyl chain is more than 10, and water repellency is little lost by repeated washes. As to nitrogen content of the fabric, the following results were obtained. 1. When cotton fabric is treated with Sumitex Resin 901 (dimethylol ethylene urea), addition of alkyl ketene dimers to resin-treating bath has no effect on its nitrogen content, that is, alkyl ketene dimer does not interrupt cross-linking reaction of dimethylol ethylene urea between OH radicals of cellulose, within the ranges studied, and that it is known that alkyl ketene dimer chemically reacts to OH radical of cellulose, in the fact that the physical strength and water repellency are little lost by repeated washes. 2. On the other hand, viscose rayon staple fabric being treated with Sumitex Cream 450 (mal nomethylol urea), addition of alkyl ketene dimers to resin-treating bath decreases its nitrogen content, that _??_is, alkyl ketene dimer interrupts the deposition of polymerized resin in micellar interstices of cellulose. But such decrease of nitrogen content has no bad effect on wrinkle recovery, it is very effective to add alkyl ketene dimer to resin-treating bath in respect of improving the physical properties of resin-treated viscose rayon staple fabric.