繊維学会誌
Online ISSN : 1884-2259
Print ISSN : 0037-9875
43 巻 , 8 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • A. Bendak, Sh. Aggour
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 393-400
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    キアナーポリアミド繊維(Q-PA)のケトン類による前処理は,繊維構造の変化を引き起こし,その繊維の染色性を改良する。改質Q-PAの等温収縮率は,溶剤による処理時間と温度に依存する。相互作用するケトン類/溶剤の分子容は,高分子中の拡散の活性化エネルギー(ΔE)に影響し,ケトン類/溶剤間のΔEの差は,基質との結合容量の差と関連づけられる。動収縮率は,前処理温度の上昇と共に鋭く増大する。改質Q-PAによるヨウ素の収着は,誘起した構造変化の差を検知することによって測定される。
    改質Q-PAのカチオン染料収着における半染色時間および染色速度定数の比は,前処理による繊維の構造変化に強く影響される。改質Q-PA中の染料の拡散速度は,染色温度の上昇と共に増大する。みかけの拡散の活性化エネルギーは,繊維マトリックス内の染料分子の運動性を示唆し,染料の親和力および染色熱は,前処理による繊維の微細構造の変化を予知する尺度となる。
  • 渋沢 崇男
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 401-415
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    染料の水中の拡散係数(D)をその分子寸法から正確に推定する簡単な方法を見出すため,各種の酸性染料,非イオンアゾ染料,スルフォン酸,カルボン酸,アルコール,糖,アミド,尿素,シクロアルカンおよびベンゼン誘導体についてDと分子寸法との関係を調べた。分子寸法として,沸点分子容(Vb),ファンデルワールス容積(Vw)および水中の極限分子容(V°)を用いて検討した結果,次のことが分った。
    1)一連の同族体化合物について, logVbまたはlog Vwとlog (T/Dη)をプロットすると良い直線になった(T;絶対温度, η;水の粘度, cP)。従って,このプロットの回帰直線式を用いると,その同族体に属する分子のDをかなり正確に推定出来る。
    2) Dは分子寸法と分子の水の構造に与える影響の両者によって決まる。カルボキシレートアニオン(R-COO-)は,その近傍の水の構造性を増加させるので,解離したカルボン酸類のDは分子寸法に比べて小さい。一方,スルフォン酸アニオン(R-SO-3)は水構造破壊子として働くので,この基を持つ酸性染料などのDは分子寸法に比べて大きい。
    それらの〓能基のDに及ぼす効果は分子の疎水部分が小さいとき,拡散温度が低い時に顕著である。
    3)染料およびそのモデル化合物では分子寸法が小さく,また溶質の近傍の水の局所的な構造にさまざまな影響を与えるので, Stokes-Einstein式は適用出来ない。
  • 戸田 玉子, 飛田 満彦
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 416-421
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of temperature, humidity and oxygen on fading of Crystal Violet (CV) in nylon 6 film were studied. In the presence of moisture, the fading of CV under dark proceeded more rapidly with temperature, resulting carbinol as one of the principal reaction products. The irradiation of visible light over 500nm accelerated the fading of CV in the film, especially at elevated temperature and in the presence of humid air. Analysis using both the least square method and the principal component analysis method revealed the formation of leuco compound (CVH), leuco base (CVOH) and Michler's Ketone (MK), accompanied with the formation of another products, such as their demethylated compounds. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and oxygen on the formation of these products were discussed.
  • 多賀谷 久子, 灰方 淳子, 中田 佳代子, 西沢 和夫
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 422-430
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    A New apparatus has been designed, which gives an accurate measurement of the rate and height of capillary rise of water in a porous material, such as fabrics, from the initial moment of contact with water.
    When two parallel plate electrodes are immersed in water, the increase of capacitance across the twin electrodes is directly proportional to the height of water between the electrodes. The circuit was used to detect the level of water contained in a vertical strip of fabric put between twin parallel plate electrodes and to give a good linear relation between capacitance and water level. One of twin electrodes is a thin stainless steel plate and the other tinned wire coil mounted on glass plate, which are coated with Teflon film to keep a good insulation.
    The progress of liquid rise in a fabric, thus the increase of capacitance is recorded automatically from the first moment of contact with the liquid. Such a water level-capacitance conversion method has a very quick response, and so we can obtain a real time record of the movement of water. Not only can it be used to study very rapid initial capillary rise, but we can determine the fiber surface characteristic and the fabric geometry effect from accurate results obtained.
    Subsequent papers will analyze in more detail the observed transient properties.
  • 粟野 美千子, 小林 信子, 石川 欣造
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 431-437
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The suitable clothing for hot weather requires passages of moisture and heat through itself. For the purpose of evaluating the moisture transfer through clothing which is put on, basic factors of measurement are discussed.
    The rate of water evaporation in wet fabrics was measured by means of weight method and humidity gradient method. As thermoregulative models of perspiration, a plane heater and a thermal manikin were used.
    In the period of a constant water evaporation from the samples, the rate of evaporation was compared between the weight method and the humidity gradient method. The ratio of the evaporation rates was estimated as 5:2 in case of a rather low convection. However, the ratio for the two methods was influenced considerably by the convection coefficient.
    It is necessary to investigate in detail the effect of convection around human body on the evaluation of the moisture transfer through clothing by humidity gradient method.
  • 力学的性質に及ぼす影響
    梅原 亮, 柴田 豊, 増田 善彦, 伊藤 啓, 宮本 武明, 稲垣 博
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 438-443
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    A method for imparting an artificial crimp to wool fibres was developed, which consists of two processings: one is a crimp formation by draft-relaxation; while the other a stabilisation of crimps by reduction-oxidation of disulphide bonds present in wool. In this work, influences of the processing conditions upon the mechanical property of wool fibres thus crimped were investigated for establishing an optimum crimping condition. The drafting and the chemical processings brought about slight decreases in the mechanical property of crimped wool fibres, although, for example, the loss in tensile strength in the Australian Shropshire wool fibre treated in this way amounted to only 5.5%. The major reason for the decrease was found to be due to incompleteness of re-oxidation of once reduced disulphide bonds. An attempt for improving this was made by re-crosslinking unreacted thiol groups with epoxides. It was found that this treatment with water-soluble multifunctional epoxide was successful.
  • 防縮加工との組合せ効果
    梅原 亮, 柴田 豊, 増田 善彦, 伊藤 啓, 宮本 武明, 稲垣 博
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. 444-449
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    An attempt to render wool fibres an excellent crimp and a high degree of shrink resistance was made by combining a shrinkproofing process with an artificial crimping process developed by us, which consists of two processings: one is a crimp formation by draft-relaxation; while the other a crimp stabilisation by reduction-oxidation of disulphide bonds present in wool. For the shrinkproofing, the chlorination/Hercosett resin process was employed. This work was carried out to know which one of these processes should be, in advance, applied in order to get successful results. It was found that, when the crimping process was applied, in advance, the crimp characteristics and the shrink resistance of wool fibres became much better and the mechanical property of wool fibres remained almost unchanged. These results can be attributed to the fact that the fibre was completely encapsulated by a smooth Hercosett resin film and had high disulphide crosslink densities. In addition, the processing technology established by us was proved to have an advantage that a continuous processing machine can be easily constructed. Wool sliver was obtained by using this machine and the performance of it was demonstrated.
  • 住本 昌之, 坂井 克己
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P291-P298
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 飯塚 堯介
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P299-P305
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐野 嘉拓
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P306-P311
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 西田 篤実
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P312-P317
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 細谷 修二
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P318-P324
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 福長 脩
    1987 年 43 巻 8 号 p. P325-P328
    発行日: 1987/08/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
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