Carbonization behavior of wheat bran was investigated. Carbon yield from wheat bran at 800 °C reached ca. 27 %, which is much higher than the conventional cellulosic carbon resources. Gluten which was one of the components in wheat bran showed similar carbonization behavior to the wheat bran. Thus, gluten seemed to play an important role during the carbonization process of wheat bran. Glutenin which was a major component of gluten and was rich in intermolecular crosslinks through S-S bonds showed carbonization behavior like glass-like carbon. Carbonized products from wheat bran could be activated through CO2 gas reaction at a temperature higher than 900 °C. The adsorption capacity to methylene blue and BET specific surface area reached 158mg⁄g and 753.4m2⁄g, respectively.
New acrylic polymer containing silk protein was synthesized by copolymerization of acrylonitrile and silk fibroin peptide with vinyl groups, and its solubility, thermal property, and moisture absorption were investigated. This polymer has a covalently cross-linking structure, and its excellent thermal stability and better moisture absorption were indicated.
Various material characteristics have been studied by extracting latent factors existing in a hidden form in factors of properties of materials. The relationships of the surface shape of materials with material characteristics and shape retention properties of sewn products are determined to pursue hand and appearance of 19 kinds of shingohsen materials, 5 kinds of natural materials and polyester lining materials and rayon lining materials. The surface structure of woven fabrics is classified into 6 types. Most of the shingohsen materials used in the studies resemble the natural materials in hand and appearance. As a result of cluster analysis of all of the materials, they are classified into 5 clusters; however, the scale of the first cluster interpreted as a group having physical properties resembling those of the natural materials is as large as 65.4%. It is revealed that 52.6% of the shingohsen materials used in the studies belong to this cluster. As a result of principal component analysis using 26 variables for the 19 shingohsen materials, it is shown that the surface photographs are positively high in the first principal component. The surface photographs are interpreted as factors related to the whole shape retention properties and the surface photographs become the standards for judging the shape retention properties of the woven fabrics, and that the modification of the surface shape of the woven fabrics is closely related to the shape retention properties of products at the same time. The third and fifth principal components are interpreted as factors related to the shape retention properties with time elapsed from the load of the principal component factor; however, it is shown that the coefficient of friction, stress relaxation and elastic recovery ratio have great influences on the functionality of the sewn products.
To obtain guideline for developing new types of clothing used the towelling fabrics, we clarified the heat and moisture transfer properties of the towelling fabrics. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Because the towelling fabrics were thick, the dry heat loss Hd of the towelling fabrics was lower than that of cotton fabrics on the market. However, the measured value Hd of the towelling fabrics was higher than that predicted from their thickness and apparent density. 2. The thermal conductance Cd of towelling fabrics which were made of cotton fiber was higher than other fibers (except for cotton) in dry or wet conditions. From this fact, it was suggested that using fabrics which were made of other fibers (except for cotton) for clothing for winter was valid, because their Cd was lower than that of cotton. 3. The maximum value of heat flux qmax of the towelling fabrics was about half of that of cotton fabrics on the market. Furthermore, it was found that qmax conformed to uses could be controlled by patterning the pile. 4. The thicker the fabric's thickness was, the lower the latent heat loss Hw became. And, it was suggested that the body temperature under the sweating with towelling clothing would not decrease rapidly, because the water absorption area in the ground layer was larger than those in the upper and lower pile layers. From these results, it was concluded that applying the towelling fabrics to clothing for infants or elderly persons was to be desirable.
This paper investigates the influence of waterproof fabrics on heat and moisture transfer through a clothing system. The water vapor permeability (WVP) for the outside layer was derived from published experimental data, and was considered to be a factor influencing the mass transfer coefficient at the boundary exposed to the environment. The analysis was carried out by using a mathematical model that describes the coupled heat and moisture transfer in porous textiles. The numerical simulation reveals a significant influence of water proof fabrics on the dynamic moisture content distribution in fabrics⁄fibers, moisture vapor condensations and the liquid transfer behavior inside the clothing. The research has shown the potential usage of the mathematical simulation in evaluating the performance of different waterproof and breathable fabrics in clothing systems, as well as the potential usage in the product development of functional apparel.
The effects of an ultraviolet(UV) absorber on the photofading behavior of dyed polylactide(PLA) fabrics were investigated. The benzotriazole type UV-absorber was applied to PLA fabrics dyed with 1%owf of several disperse dyes by adding 3%owf of it to each dye bath. The application of the UV-absorber in the dyeing of PLA fabrics provided beneficial effects against photofading for the azo disperse dyes, C.I. Disperse Orange 25 and Orange 44. The light fastness of the PLA fabrics dyed with these dyes were improved by 0.8-1.8 grade of magnitude assessed by the instrumental method. However in the case of the anthraquinone disperse dyes, Red 60 and Red 127, there appears to be slight or detrimental effectiveness. The light fastness of PLA fabrics dyed with C.I. Disperse Red 50 at various depth of dyeing in the presence of the UV-absorber were determined and compared with those of the specimens dyed in the absence of UV-absorber. It was shown that the UV-absorber protected against photofading more effectively on lighter shades than on darker shades.