It is necessary to connect cores of two optical fibers mutually and to compose an optical window between fibers for distributing the optical signal. The ultrasonic fusion technique enables physical joining through instantaneous fusion of junction boundary surfaces, so one of its distinctive features is that it does not cause deformation or other physical changes at areas outside the junction. Therefore, it is predicted that optical signals come and go between the joined fibers with no change in the propagation mode. In this report, the optical window and area were varied and optical characteristics were evaluated, while controlling ultrasonic fusion conditions. The distribution ratio was predicted from the joined structure using the geometrical ray tracing method, and the predictions were compared with experimental results. The optical ray propagation was calculated for 104 to 105 incident rays, and the results matched well with experimental results, thus showing that ray tracing using simple geometrical calculation is useful in predicting the distribution ratio. In parallel joined type optical couplers formed via ultrasonic vibration, the splitting ratio precision can be adjusted from 6 dB to 1 dB by varying the joined area, while maintaining low insertion loss. Equal distribution, however, cannot be achieved.
To establish a textile dye wastewater treatment methods, the ozonation and the successive biodegradation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) which was widely used as thickener for textile printing process were investigated. The degradation of CMC by the ozonation was affected by the initial pH, that the higher the initial pH, the lager the reduction of TOC and carboxymethyl group. At the initial pH 12, TOC was reduced to 50% by ozonation for 240 min, and reduced to 95% of initial TOC value by the successive biodegradation. It can be therefore, said that biodegradability of CMC is improved by the ozonation. Further more, by the ozonation with H202 and the ozonation with buffer solution for restrained lower initial pH, the oxidation efficiency and biodegradability were more improved. Therefore, ozonation for 120 min was carried out for aqueous CMC solution with pH 7 (buffer solution) under copresence of H202 at 100mg/l concentration. The TOC in the solution was reduced to 70% by the ozonation, and reduced to more than 99% of initial value at the successive biodegradation. It was conclusively found that CMC could be completely mineralized by a combined method of the ozonation and the biodegradation.
The affective tone of colour is an important factor for the colour scheme. Although several attempts have been made to analyse the affective tone of colour from the psychological point of view, none is satisfactory in terms of the quantitative analysis. Since the Vivid-Sombre, Gaudy-Plain, Striking-Subdued, Dynamic-Passive, Distinct-Vague, Transparent-Turbid, Soft-Hard and Strong-Weak feelings are fundamental affections based on chroma, we have examined to analyse quantitatively the feelings of colour in terms of colorimetric values which are supposed to correlate with the affective tone. We performed a visual experiment where either word to be selected from the specimens selected systematically in colour space. The results confirm that the feelings are mainly affected by Munsell chroma and Munsell value. The visual assessment was compared with Munsell chroma, Munsell value and so on, which computed from the colorimetric values, and the following empirical formula was found to represent the feelings, respectively. where, CI: Colour image value, V: Munsell value, C: Munsell chroma, kv: Constant of the contribution of Munsell, value for the colour image, kc: Constant of the contribution of Munsell chroma for the colour image, ks: Constant for the scaling of the colour image, V0, C0: Munsell value and chroma when the colour image percent is minimum.
A theory of fabric extension in bias direction was developed to obtain apparent shear modulus of fabrics by uniaxial tensile test, and the experimental condition was shown. An experimental method to extend a fabric loop with support rods was employed to meet the measurement theory. The applicability and the error of the experiment method was examined. The shearing force-strain curve can be obtained from tensile force-strain curve measured by the tensile test of a fabric in bias direction, and the shearing modulus can be obtained from inclination of the curve. The shearing force-strain curve obtained by the tensile test was compared with that by commercial shearing tester. Though the shearing force in the tensile test shows a slightly large value than that in the shearing test, obtained data agree each other in small range of strain. The shearing modulus obtained by both methods also agreed for most samples in strain range of 5% well. Thus, the quantitative effectiveness of the measurement of shearing modulus of fabrics by uniaxial tensile test was obtained.
Thermal insulation and ventilation capacity of clothing are one of the most important properties concerning the thermal comfort of the human body. Though both of above properties are needed for winter clothing, it is difficult to get a clothing with both good thermal insulation and good ventilation capacity only by fabric properties like thermal conductivity and air permeability because a clothing with good ventilation capacity has little thermal insulation and vice versa. This paper aimed to find a most compromising condition by changing clothing constructive factors like size of air space and open-closed situation of lower opening of air space of clothing. Ventilation capacity was affected by both air permeability of a clothing material and an open-closed situation of lower opening. It was already made clear in a previous paper _??_1_??_ that the air permeability of clothing material did not affect on heat transfer of clothing when the human model was standstill, the size of air space of clothing was more than 10mm and there was no forced flow in surroundings. So ventilation could be caused only by the penetration through lower opening. By experiments using vertical hot-plate and theoretical calculation, follows were clarified. Open-closed situation of lower opening affected on thermal insulation largest when the size of air space was 10mm. Thermal efficiency of closed case was 1.45 times as large as that of open case. However, from a viewpoint of ventilation, an open situation was desirable. If this situation occurred in a real clothing system, an unevenness of thermal insulation along the height would increase chilliness near “legs”.
An attempt was made to elucidate the effect of the terminal group on physical, rheological and thermal properties of poly-(hexamethylene adipamide) (nylon 66). For this purpose, the experiments on melt-flow, water adsorption and thermal behavior for nylon 66 chips having different molar fractions of amino terminal group ƒN were carried out as well as structural analysis on the as-extruded yarns. It was found that an increase in ƒN resulted in 1) the lowering of water absorption rate, 2) the increasing in activation energy for the melt flow for the nylon 66 chips, and 3) the increase in tan δmax and the decrease in Tmax for α relaxation of the as-extruded yarns at 300°C . Analysis based on the rubber elastic theory for the melt revealed that higher activation energy is required for nylon 66 with larger ƒN but failed to detect the evidence for the presence of chemical or pseudo-cross-linking for nylon 66 with higher ƒN. These results support the idea that nylon 66 with high ƒN has inherently stronger molecular interaction in the amorphous region to hinder the structural formation induced by heat and humidity.
A simple image formation on cellulosic substrate with using a combination of patterned UV photooxidation reaction on cellulosic substrate and metal silver deposition reaction on the oxidized cellulose substrate has been studied. The color depth of the silver deposit on the substrate increased with increasing the integrated energy of UV irradiation. Assuming that the color depth of the deposit is proportional to the amount of aldehydes formed on the substrate, the photooxidation reaction of hydroxyl group on the cellulose substrate to aldehydes found to apparently follow the first order reaction kinetics.
In order to obtain some information regarding to the change in amino acid compositions of wool keratin brought about by hydrogen peroxide under conditions in which the Cu (II) ion is bound to wool, the amino acid analyses were made on the residues and the soluble pepetide fragments produced by this oxidation. Cystine was converted into cysteic acid by this oxidation and not detected on the soluble pepetide fragments in filtrates. A relatively large amount of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in the residues and the filtrates. However phenylalanine and tyrosin were not detected in the filtrates, and these amino acids were less in the residues.