The effect of surfactant pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of a wool substrate was studied. It was found that surfactant pretreatment with anionic surfactants accelerated the enzymatic hydrolysis of a wool substrate by protease. Below the critical micelle concentration, the dissolution rate of the wool fabric increased with the amount of surfactant adsorbed. In particular, alkaline fatty acid surfactants strongly accelerated the enzymatic hydrolysis of wool. They caused extensive damage to the wool surface with the elution of scales and a change in the internal fiber structure. This damage aids enzyme action on the inside of the wool, thus resulting in an increased dissolution rate.
We report a simple hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanotube/nickel ferrite (CNT/NiFe2O4) nanocomposites. The CNTs used in this work were pretreated with nitric acid. The evolution of the synthesis of the CNT/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized in situ on the CNT surface. Vibrating-sample magnetometer measurements showed that the CNT/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit typical soft ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 24 emu/g.
In this paper, we propose a new method that measures the vacant space distance between the human body and sanitary products. The proposed method obtains the vacant space distance by subtraction between human body front surfaces and sanitary products back surfaces. In the developed measurement device, the back surface of sanitary products is measured using a laser displacement transducer on the inside of a partial human body model made of wire netting, and the vacant space distance is obtained by subtracting the front surface of the human body from the back surface of the sanitary products. To evaluate the method we measured the vacant space distance between the human body and sanitary napkins. Evaluation experiments proved that the proposed method is capable of obtaining vacant space distance changes by the differences of weight, crimping, and absorption for sanitary napkins.
A mathematical model for prediction of the end breakage rate due to knots in the 1×1 rib knitting zone is formulated by using the mathematical model of the 1×1 rib knitting process and the mechanism of the end breakage due to knots in the 1×1 rib knitting zone. The only unknown value in this computer program based on this model is the yarn tension(Tr) in the trailing arm of the loop held the needle that got out of the step length of cam. Tr is obtained by the simulated calculation used this program so that the calculated end breakage rate agrees with the experimental end breakage rate. Then the effects of the depth of stitch draw, the cam angle, the step length of cam and the input tension on Tr are described. The results obtained using this program are as follows. 1) the jamming rates of knots in the 1×1 rib knitting zone increase with the increase of the depth of stitch draw, the step length of cam and the input tension, but decreases with the increase of the cam angle. 2) the end breakage rates due to knots in the 1×1 rib knitting zone increase with the increase of the depth of stitch draw, the step length of cam and the input tension, but decrease with the increase of the cam angle.
In this study, the effect of coexisting aromatic compound such as pyridine, aniline, indole, benzonitrile, phenol and benzoic acid on the Cd(II) adsorption onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was examined to identify which functional groups were effective for the adsorption. The results showed that the coexisting benzoic acid and pyridine were effective and increased the amount of Cd(II) adsorption at the pH of around 7 in the solution. On the other hand, the coexisting indole, aniline, phenol and benzonitrile caused the decrease in the amount of adsorbed Cd(II).These results suggest that carboxyl group (benzoic acid) and pyridine-N (pyridine) are more effective than pyrrole-N (indole), amino group (aniline), phenolic hydroxyl (phenol) and cyano group (benzonitrile) for the removal of Cd(II).